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Table 1 Eligibility criteria for the present systematic review

From: The effect of the local administration of biological substances on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review of human studies

Domain Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria
Participants Healthy human subjects undergoing any kind of active orthodontic treatment with orthodontic appliances. • Animal subjects undergoing any kind of orthodontic tooth movement.
• Human subjects after the cessation of active orthodontic tooth movement, or unhealthy human subjects suffering from syndromes or systematic diseases.
Interventions Local or systemic administration of common biological agents (growth hormone, prostaglandins, parathyroid hormone, thyroxine, relaxin, vitamin D, platelet-rich plasma) to accelerate the rate of OTM • Studies where the active substance or another intervention was used to decelerate OTM.
• The use of other interventions to accelerate OTM including (surgical interventions, e.g. corticotomies, micro-osteoperforations, piezocisions, the use of low-level energy laser and vibration)
▪ The local or systemic administration of drugs that are manufactured through chemical synthesis by combining specific chemical ingredients which are not considered biologics and might include bisphosphonates, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), immunosuppressants, anti-cancerous drugs and anticonvulsants.
Comparisons Placebo intervention (preferably) or no intervention or administration of different dosages of the investigated substance.  
Outcomes Qualitative and quantitative data if possible regarding the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (i.e. the amount of tooth movement in a specific period of time) measured by various ways (callipers, feeler gauges, lateral cephalometric or panoramic radiographs, cone beam computerized tomography, digital or stone study models, etc.).  
Study design Experimental prospective controlled studies (randomized and non-randomized) ▪ Non-comparative studies.
▪ In vitro or ex vivo studies.
▪ Case reports, reviews, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses, case series, animal studies, opinion articles, and letters from editor