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Table 1 General characteristics of included studies

From: Effects of low-level laser therapy on the orthodontic mini-implants stability: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year Country Study design Participants (sample; gender; age) OMI (sample; dimensions; site; load) Groups Evaluation methods Follow-up time
Abohabib, 2018 [10] Egypt RCT 15 participants; -; 20.9 ± 3.4 years 30 OMI; 1.5 mm diameter and 8 mm length; maxilla; IL (150 g) L group; C group Stability: RFA using the Osstell ISQ device. Clinical success/failure rates: absence/presence of mobility. 10 weeks
Ekizer, 2016 [14] Turkey RCT 20 participants; 13 F/7 M; 16.77 ± 1.41 years 20 OMI; 1.6 mm diameter and 8 mm length; maxilla; - L group; C group Stability: RFA using the Osstell ISQ device. Inflammation: interleukin-1β levels in gingival and peri-implant crevicular fluid 3 months
Flieger, 2019 Poland RCT 20 participants; 13 F/7M; 32.5 ± 6.1 years 40 OMI; 1.4 mm diameter and 10 mm length; maxilla; -. L group; C group Stability: PTV using the Periotest device. Pain: NRS-11 60 days
Marañón-Vásquez, 2019 [6] Brazil Non-RCT 19 participants; -; - 48 OMI for stability; 35 OMI for displacement; 1.5 mm diameter and 8 mm length; maxilla/mandible; IL/DL (150 g) PBM + IL group; PBM + DL group; IL group/DL group Stability: RFA using the Osstell ISQ device. Displacement: Images from CBCT 3 months
Matys, 2020 [16] Poland RCT 22 participants; 14 F/8 M; 31.7 ± 9.7 years 44 OMI; 1.4 mm diameter and 10 mm length; maxilla; - L group; C group Stability: PTV using the Periotest device. Pain: NRS-11 60 days
Osman, 2017 [15] Egypt RCT 12 participants; 6 F/6 M; 14 to 28 years 24 OMI; -; maxilla; DL (150 g) L group; C group Stability: PTV using the Periotest device. Inflammation: gingival index 60 days
  1. RCT randomized clinical trial, Non-RCT non-randomized clinical trial, F female sex, M male sex, OMI orthodontic mini-implant, L laser, C control, PBM photobiomodulation, IL immediate loading, DL delay loading, PTV periotest value, NRS-11 numeric pain rating scale-11, RFA resonance frequency analysis, CBCT cone beam computed tomograph
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