Skip to main content

Table 2 Descriptive statistics and comparasions between female experimental (EG) and control (CG) groups, before treatment (T0), at the end of second treatment phase (T1) and 10 years after treatment (T2). Po Porion, Co Condyleon, perp perpendicular, Co-Gn Condyleon-Gnation, Pg Pogonion, FH Frankfurt Horizontal, SN Sella-Nasion, MPA mandibular plane angle, Me Menton, S Sella, Go Gonion, ANS anterior nasal spine, U1 upper incisor, L1 lower incisor, E plane Esthetic plane. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001

From: Sexual dimorphism in the long-term stability (10 years) of skeletal Class III treatment

Cephalometric measures T0 T1 T2 T0 T1 T2
EG CG EG CG EG CG EG vs. CG
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD (t test)
Cranial base
 Cranial flexure (°) 28.01 2.36 28.20 1.82 28.63 2.23 28.93 1.95 28.99 2.00 29.50 1.69 NS NS NS
 Po localization (mm) − 40.80 2.40 − 41.18 2.47 − 41.60 3.11 − 42.05 2.39 − 41.04 3.59 − 42.16 2.47 NS NS NS
 Anterior cranial base (mm) 66.04 3.69 68.40 2.41 69.97 3.48 70.57 2.58 72.06 3.81 72.12 2.79 * NS NS
 Posterior cranial base (mm) 29.60 2.27 31.60 2.43 33.34 2.94 33.10 2.28 33.54 3.41 33.76 2.14 * NS NS
Maxillary skeletal
 Co-point A (mm) 77.89 4.27 80.82 3.38 84.83 5.06 83.92 3.77 88.10 3.63 87.09 4.72 * NS NS
 SNA (°) 79.87 2.77 78.60 3.40 80.28 2.82 77.85 3.90 80.74 3.52 78.18 4.07 NS NS NS
 Point A-Nasion perp (mm) − 0.23 3.33 − 0.41 2.31 0.35 3.32 − 0.64 3.97 1.21 3.71 0.61 3.06 NS NS NS
 Maxillary depth (°) 89.77 3.77 89.57 2.33 90.37 3.40 89.35 3.86 91.20 3.56 90.59 2.97 NS NS NS
Mandibular skeletal
 Co-Gn (mm) 106.18 5.41 108.06 7.07 118.11 4.83 114.44 4.81 124.60 6.33 119.88 5.69 NS * *
 SNB (°) 79.98 2.46 76.53 3.31 79.99 3.01 76.64 3.67 80.40 3.80 76.80 4.33 ** * *
 Pg-Nasion perp (mm) 0.66 4.51 − 2.90 5.22 1.92 6.35 − 1.40 6.71 4.57 6.66 1.96 6.28 NS NS NS
Maxillary/mandibular
 Wits appraisal (mm) − 7.51 2.70 0.18 2.00 − 4.34 2.20 − 0.56 1.59 − 4.80 2.89 − 0.40 1.98 *** *** ***
 ANB (°) − 0.21 2.10 2.06 1.06 0.51 2.21 1.20 1.44 0.33 3.05 1.44 1.36 ** NS NS
 Maxillary/mandibular difference (mm) 28.26 3.81 26.88 5.06 33.28 4.08 30.50 3.65 36.50 6.08 32.77 3.45 NS NS NS
Vertical skeletal
 FH-occlusal plane (°) 10.34 2.97 6.97 3.13 6.19 3.37 5.35 3.76 4.97 4.20 2.97 3.53 ** NS NS
 SN-palatal plane (°) 8.32 2.36 7.38 2.67 7.86 3.00 8.87 3.75 8.31 2.85 8.06 2.30 NS NS NS
 MPA (°) 27.12 4.53 25.16 4.23 26.33 5.83 24.60 4.88 24.86 5.49 22.66 5.53 NS NS NS
 Nasion-Me (mm) 107.94 7.17 112.14 8.00 120.90 5.84 118.66 5.33 125.14 7.02 122.23 5.91 NS NS NS
 S-Go (mm) 65.72 3.45 70.26 6.37 75.45 4.27 74.82 5.05 79.37 6.40 78.42 4.58 * NS NS
 ANS-Me (mm) 61.07 4.63 64.57 5.24 68.43 5.36 67.94 4.81 71.60 6.59 69.84 5.31 NS NS NS
 Gonial angle (°) 130.54 6.75 124.58 4.49 125.86 8.01 122.64 4.64 124.87 6.12 121.44 5.48 ** NS NS
Facial pattern
 S-Go/Nasion-Me (%) 61.10 4.55 62.68 4.18 62.58 5.30 63.55 4.58 64.04 4.69 64.32 5.09 NS NS NS
 Facial axis (°) 91.66 3.90 89.74 3.76 90.33 5.42 89.28 4.12 91.21 5.48 90.34 4.61 NS NS NS
Interdental
 Overjet (mm) − 1.31 2.30 4.04 0.94 2.76 0.71 2.90 0.93 2.08 1.02 3.10 0.70 *** NS **
 Overbite (mm) 0.28 1.52 2.34 2.06 1.48 0.74 1.48 0.78 1.10 1.11 2.23 1.12 ** NS *
 Interincisal angle (°) 141.39 14.33 133.86 9.44 130.78 6.19 126.96 8.25 131.44 8.56 127.77 9.37 NS NS NS
 Molar relationship (mm) − 4.26 2.16 − 0.67 1.21 − 2.01 1.12 − 1.74 0.74 − 2.56 1.32 − 1.76 0.82 *** NS NS
Dentoalveolar
 U1 to point A to Nasion perp (mm) 3.50 2.04 5.40 2.05 6.60 1.58 6.02 2.35 7.48 2.30 7.16 2.03 * NS NS
 U1 to FH (°) 102.26 26.49 113.80 6.51 119.05 5.43 117.46 8.47 118.56 6.79 118.27 8.88 NS NS NS
 L1 to A-Pg 3.01 1.74 1.29 2.53 3.02 1.98 2.94 1.84 3.55 2.62 3.07 2.21 * NS NS
 L1 to MPA (°) 82.54 6.64 87.85 5.43 83.86 6.44 91.01 6.04 85.13 7.31 92.16 4.23 * ** **
Soft tissue realtionship
 Lower lip to E plane (mm) − 0.64 2.04 − 0.40 1.76 − 1.50 2.49 − 1.24 2.29 − 2.44 3.21 − 2.70 2.78 NS NS NS
 Upper lip to E plane (mm) − 4.08 2.26 − 2.42 1.92 − 4.26 2.32 − 3.86 1.96 − 5.83 2.94 − 5.72 1.81 * NS NS
 Nasiolabial angle (°) 102.43 6.25 103.13 6.45 99.40 4.99 102.43 9.02 100.16 6.49 102.26 6.71 NS NS NS