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Table 4 Comparison between females and males during the periods T0–T1 and T1–T2 in the Class III group. Po Porion, Co Condyleon, perp perpendicular, Co-Gn Condyleon-Gnation, Pg Pogonion, FH Frankfurt Horizontal, SN Sella-Nasion, MPA mandibular plane angle, Me Menton, S Sella, Go Gonion, ANS anterior nasal spine, U1 upper incisor, L1 lower incisor, E plane Esthetic plane. * p < 0.05

From: Sexual dimorphism in the long-term stability (10 years) of skeletal Class III treatment

Cephalometric measures T0–T1 T1–T2 Female vs. male T0–T1 Female vs. male T1–T2
Female Male Female Male t test t test
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Significance Significance
Cranial base
 Cranial flexure (°) 0.62 2.67 − 0.46 1.26 0.36 2.14 − 0.02 1.55 NS NS
 Po localization (mm) − 0.80 2.29 − 2.11 2.51 0.56 3.25 − 2.68 5.12 NS *
 Anterior cranial base (mm) 3.93 2.49 3.28 2.16 2.08 2.74 2.71 2.69 NS NS
 Posterior cranial base (mm) 3.74 1.90 2.70 1.92 0.20 2.63 3.51 5.29 NS *
Maxillary skeletal
 Co-point A (mm) 6.94 3.97 5.10 3.66 3.26 3.67 5.84 10.81 NS NS
 SNA (°) 0.41 2.11 0.49 1.35 0.45 3.54 0.06 1.32 NS NS
 Point A-Nasion perp (mm) 0.58 2.14 0.35 2.16 0.86 1.83 0.58 2.97 NS NS
 Maxillary depth (°) 0.60 2.57 0.23 2.20 0.82 1.64 0.70 2.64 NS NS
Mandibular skeletal
 Co-Gn (mm) 11.92 5.13 10.58 6.77 6.49 5.98 8.94 9.02 NS NS
 SNB (°) 0.00 2.28 0.06 1.12 0.41 2.59 1.65 2.32 NS NS
 Pg-Nasion perp (mm) 1.26 4.61 0.22 5.46 2.65 3.49 3.84 4.96 NS NS
Maxillary/mandibular
 Wits appraisal (mm) 3.16 1.77 2.50 2.12 − 0.46 1.94 − 2.70 2.53 NS *
 ANB (°) 0.72 1.58 0.48 1.84 − 0.18 1.27 − 1.37 1.06 NS *
 Maxillary/mandibibular difference (mm) 5.02 3.50 5.28 4.81 3.22 3.23 5.64 7.62 NS NS
Vertical skeletal
 FH-occlusal plane (°) − 4.14 3.10 − 1.78 4.22 − 1.22 2.46 − 1.09 3.55 NS NS
 SN-palatal plane (°) − 0.46 2.19 − 0.80 2.05 0.45 2.12 − 0.55 3.05 NS NS
 MPA (°) − 0.79 2.94 − 0.38 2.81 − 1.47 2.95 − 1.96 2.88 NS NS
 Nasion-Me (mm) 12.96 5.33 10.62 6.70 4.24 6.33 10.24 19.48 NS NS
 S-Go (mm) 9.72 3.50 8.10 5.16 3.92 3.59 5.09 5.45 NS NS
 ANS-Me (mm) 7.36 3.76 5.70 3.43 3.17 3.29 5.82 11.59 NS NS
 Gonial angle (°) − 4.68 5.33 − 2.42 3.39 − 0.98 4.55 − 1.08 3.32 NS NS
Facial pattern
 S-Go/Nasion-Me (%) 1.48 2.28 1.95 1.78 1.46 2.76 1.66 2.04 NS NS
 Facial axis (°) − 1.33 2.86 − 0.88 2.27 0.88 4.30 1.87 2.68 NS NS
Interdental
 Overjet (mm) 4.07 2.44 2.12 2.27 − 0.68 0.70 − 1.09 1.47 * NS
 Overbite (mm) 1.20 1.55 0.05 2.40 − 0.38 0.75 − 0.64 0.90 NS NS
 Interincisal angle (°) − 10.61 14.34 − 5.38 6.06 0.66 6.45 3.55 5.92 NS NS
 Molar relationship (mm) 2.25 2.17 0.72 1.98 − 0.54 1.23 − 0.76 1.76 NS NS
Dentoalveolar
 U1 to point A to Nasion perp (mm) 3.10 2.82 1.68 0.96 0.88 1,62 1.14 0.87 NS NS
 U1 to FH (°) 16.79 28.64 4.82 6.59 − 0.48 3.98 − 0.06 2.85 NS NS
 L1 to A-Pg (mm) 0.01 1.53 0.52 1.50 0.52 1.39 0.32 1.21 NS NS
 L1 to MPA (°) 1.32 5.75 − 0.38 2.86 1.27 3.72 − 1.13 4.20 NS NS
Soft tissue relationship
 Lower lip to E plane (mm) − 0.86 2.00 − 0.93 1.89 − 0.94 2.08 − 1.44 1.61 NS NS
 Upper lip to E plane (mm) − 0.17 2.28 − 0.97 2.47 − 1.57 2.08 − 2.63 2.80 NS NS
 Nasiolabial angle (°) − 3.03 4.36 − 0.43 5.09 0.76 4.74 1.06 4.36 NS NS