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Table 6 Comparison of the differences by sex between Class III (EG, experimental group) and Class I (CG, control group) groups in period T1–T2. Pg Pogonion, FH Frankfurt Horizontal, SN Sella-Nasion, MPA mandibular plane angle, Me Menton, S Sella, Go Gonion, ANS anterior nasal spine, U1 upper incisor, L1 lower incisor, E plane Esthetic plane. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001

From: Sexual dimorphism in the long-term stability (10 years) of skeletal Class III treatment

Cephalometric measures EG CG T1–T2 (t test EG vs. CG)
Females Males Females Males
Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Significance Significance
Cranial base
 Cranial flexure (°) 0.36 2.14 − 0.02 1.55 0.56 1.38 0.68 1.46 NS NS
 Po localization (mm) 0.56 3.25 − 2.68 5.12 − 0.10 1.71 − 0.96 1.95 NS NS
 Anterior cranial base (mm) 2.08 2.74 2.71 2.69 1.60 1.41 3.87 2.64 NS NS
 Posterior cranial base (mm) 0.20 2.63 3.51 5.29 0.66 1.42 1.70 1.53 NS NS
Maxillary skeletal
 Co-point A (mm) 3.26 3.67 5.84 1.081 3.17 2.16 4.51 2.08 NS NS
 SNA (°) 0.45 3.54 0.06 1.32 0.32 1.22 − 0.42 1.08 NS NS
 Point A-Nasion perp (mm) 0.86 1.83 0.58 2.97 1.26 1.55 − 0.38 1.19 NS NS
 Maxillary depth (°) 0.82 1.64 0.70 2.64 1.24 1.63 0.26 1.26 NS NS
Mandibular skeletal
 Co-Gn (mm) 6.49 5.98 8.94 9.02 5.44 3.15 8.72 3.61 NS NS
 SNB (°) 0.41 2.59 1.65 2.32 0.16 1.47 − 0.53 1.71 NS **
 Pg-Nasion perp (mm) 2.65 3.49 3.84 4.96 3.37 4.28 1.16 2.30 NS NS
Maxillary/mandibular
 Wits appraisal (mm) − 0.46 1.94 − 2.70 2.53 0.16 0.80 0.73 1.25 NS ***
 ANB (°) − 0.18 1.27 − 1.37 1.06 0.23 0.88 0.20 1.16 NS **
 Maxillary/mandibibular difference (mm) 3.22 3.23 5.64 7.62 2.26 1.88 4.42 3.20 NS NS
Vertical skeletal
 FH-occlusal plane (°) − 1.22 2.46 − 1.09 3.55 − 2.38 2.64 − 1.22 2.26 NS NS
 SN-palatal plane (°) 0.45 2.12 − 0.55 3.05 − 0.80 2.67 2.29 2.94 NS *
 MPA (°) − 1.47 2.95 − 1.96 2.88 − 1.93 2.81 − 1.82 2.18 NS NS
 Nasion-Me (mm) 4.24 6.33 10.24 19.48 3.56 2.52 8.46 3.08 NS NS
 S-Go (mm) 3.92 3.42 5.09 5.45 3.60 3.36 8.61 3.56 NS *
 ANS-Me (mm) 3.17 3.29 5.82 11.59 1.90 1.86 3.12 2.28 NS NS
 Gonial angle (°) − 0.98 4.55 − 1.08 3.32 − 1.20 4.74 − 3.90 6.82 NS NS
Facial pattern
 S-Go/Nasion-Me (%) 1.46 2.76 1.66 2.04 0.77 2.03 0.97 2.46 NS NS
 Facial axis (°) 0.88 4.30 1.87 2.68 1.06 1.49 0.79 1.20 NS NS
Interdental
 Overjet (mm) − 0.68 0.70 − 1.09 1.47 0.20 1.15 1.62 1.34 * ***
 Overbite (mm) − 0.38 0.75 − 0.64 0.90 0.74 1.31 0.84 1.02 ** ***
 Interincisal angle (°) 0.66 6.45 3.55 5.92 0.81 8.79 6.34 4.41 NS NS
 Molar relationship (mm) − 0.54 1.23 − 0.76 1.76 − 0.02 0.81 − 0.12 1.11 NS NS
Dentoalveolar
 U1 to point A to Nasion perp (mm) 0.88 1.62 1.14 0.87 1.14 0.85 1.12 1.19 NS NS
 U1 to FH (°) − 0.48 3.98 − 0.06 2.85 0.80 5.76 0.02 2.43 NS NS
 L1 to A-Pg (mm) 0.52 1.39 0.32 1.21 0.12 1.47 − 0.72 1.52 NS *
 L1 to MPA (°) 1.27 3.72 − 1.13 4.20 1.15 4.41 − 0.51 1.81 NS NS
Soft tissue relationship
 Lower lip to E plane (mm) − 0.94 2.08 − 1.44 1.61 − 1.46 2.30 − 1.76 0.85 NS NS
 Upper lip to E plane (mm) − 1.57 2.08 − 2.63 2.80 − 1.86 2.03 − 1.98 0.95 NS NS
 Nasiolabial angle (°) − 0.16 5.68 − 1.06 4.36 0.76 4.74 − 0.43 2.10 NS NS