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Table 3 Studies classified by AI/ML algorithm employed

From: Applications of artificial intelligence and machine learning in orthodontics: a scoping review

Type of AI/ML algorithm utilized Number of studies Reference number
Artificial neural network—ANN 13 [18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30]
Convolutional neural network—CNN 9 [31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39]
Support vector machine 9 [20, 24, 40,41,42,43,44,45,46]
Regression 8 [18, 20, 33, 39, 42, 47,48,49]
Random forest 5 [18, 20, 47, 50, 51]
Decision tree 3 [20, 41, 50]
Bayesian networks 3 [52,53,54]
Expert systems 3 [55,56,57]
Active shape models 2 [58, 59]
Automatic detection algorithms 2 [60, 61]
Fuzzy clustering 2 [62, 63]
Active appearance models 2 [64, 65]
Shape variation analyzer 2 [66, 67]
Pattern matching 2 [68, 69]
Light GBM 1 [47]
XG boost 1 [47]
Deep learning network 1 [70]
k-nearest neighbors 1 [20]
Naïve-Bayes 1 [20]
Machine learning with LINKS 1 [71]
Gaussian process regression—GPR 1 [40]
Logic learning machine 1 [72]
Mean shift algorithm 1 [43]
Network analysis 1 [73]
Projected principle edge distribution 1 [74]
Spatial spectroscopy 1 [75]
Unspecified algorithms 4 [76,77,78,79]