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Table 2 Presentation of evidence related to microRNAs in orthodontics based on participants and study characteristics, GCF handling, and outcomes

From: MicroRNAs in oral fluids (saliva and gingival crevicular fluid) as biomarkers in orthodontics: systematic review and integrated bioinformatic analysis

S No. Authors Age/sex of study participants Oral fluid miRNA studied Observation times Study characteristics GCF Collection Handling Analysis Results Conclusion
1 [21] 15 (10–17 y) patients for test sample, 4M (26–28 y) for std. sample GCF miRNA-29 (a/b/c) 5 times, T0-prior to retr., T1-1 hr post retr., T2-1 d post retr., T3-7 d post retr., T4-6 wk post retr. CaninerRetr. force of 250 g Periopaper, Mesial site of canine 1min. placement, repeat 4 times Quan. & qual. of RNA; Bioanalyzer, spectrophotometer, secretory miRNA presence: miScript PCR array, miRNA-29 presence: RT-real-ime PCR Stat. sign. increase in levels of miRNA-29 family  from T0-T4,-specificall y in miRNA-29b:
from T0-T1, T0-T3, no stat. diff b/w levels of miRNA 29-a,b,c
Presence of miRNA-29 in GCF (mostly in exosome) in OTM, role in regulation of osteoclasts & ECM molecule expression
2 [7] 20 (12–18 y) GCF miR-34a and MMPs-1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 14 6 times, T0-day of force application, T1-1 hr post retr., T2-1 d post retr., T3-1 wk post retr., T4-4 wk post retr., T5-12 wk post retr. Canine retr. as explained in [48], oral hygiene protocol of 0.12% CLX gluconate rinse for 1 wk, random canine as index tooth, contra. canine as control, canine retr. Periopaper, tension & compr. sites 1min. placement RT-PCR T2–T4: mi-34a decrease & MMPs increase compared to T0, T1, T5: baseline levels,
-ve correl. of miR-34a with MMP-2, 9, 14, no diff. b/w tension & compr. sites, no variation in control teeth
miRNA-34a role in OTM, regulates osteogenic function, Wnt/b-catenin pathway
3 [2] 11 (3M, 8F, 10-18y), ethnic distr.: 9 Hispanics, 1 African American, 1 Caucasian. GCF miRNA 29 (a,b,c), 21, 101 6 times, T0-before bonding, T1-0 d of canine retr. (before retr.), T2-1 hr post retr., T3-1 d post retr., T4-7 d post retr., T5- 5 wk post retr. Canine retr. 250 g, by E-chain activn Periopaper, MB DB sites 1–2 mm insertion, 4 times collection (60 sec each) Total RNA: spectrophotometer, specific miRNA: qRT-PCR, RNA assay, real-time PCR system miRNA 29a: increase b/w T1–T2, fall in T3, peak at T5 (stat. sign.) miRNA 29b; stat. sign increase b/w T1–T2, T1–T4, T1–T5, miRNA 29c stat. sign. increase b/w T1–T5, miRNA 101: stat. sign. increase b/w T1–T4, T1–T5, miRNA 21: stat. sign. increase b/w T1-T5, no stat. diff. b/w levels of 29a,b,c miRNAs-29a/b/c, miRNA-21 role in osteoclast &  osteoblast regulation, miRNA 101:against fibrogenesis
4 [22] 11 (4M, 7F, 14.75 y av. age)) GCF miRNAs 27 (a/b), 146(a/b), 214 5 times, T0-prior to bonding, T1-0 d (before coil spring activn.), T2-2 wk post retr., T3-5 wk post retr., T4-7 wk post retr. Canine retr. with 150cN closed coil spring anchored to sectional L-loop &TADs Periopaper 5 periopaper strips at each time point (60 sec each), 1st for volumetric & rest 4 for miRNA measurements Real-time qRT-PCR, spectrophotometer Canine m/ment distance b/w T1-T2 showed stat. sign. +ve correl. with profile express. of miRNA-27a at T2, miRNA27b at T2, miRNA 214 at T2,
b/w T1-T3 with profile express. of miRNA 27b at T3, no change in miRNA 146a/b, mild -ve correl. b/w GCF volume & miRNA-27a change at T4
Role of miRNA 27a/b, 146a/b, 214 in OTM, of which expression profile of miRN27a/b, 214 showed correl with canine m/ment, role in catbolic & anabolic pathways
  1. +ve positive, −ve negative, activn activation, b/w between, CLX Chlorhexidine, compr. compression, correl. correlation, d day(s), DB distobuccal, diff. difference, distr. distribution, E-chain elastic chain, ECM extracellular matrix, hr hour(s), GCF gingival crevicular fluid, max. maximum, MB mesiobuccal, min.(s) minutes, miR/miRNA microRNA (mature form), m/ment movement, MMP matrix metalloproteinases, mon months, NiTi nickel titanium, OPG osteoprotegrin, OTM orthodontic tooth movement, PCR polymerase chain reaction, pdl periodontal ligament, Qual. quality, Quan. quantity, RANKL receptor activator of n-Kappa ligand, retr. retraction, sec. second(s), sign. significant, stat. statistically, std. standard, TAD temporary anchorage devices (TADs), wk week(s), WT wild type, y year(s)