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Table 1 Description of the measurements on lateral radiographs and dental casts

From: Stability prediction of early orthopedic treatment in Class III malocclusion: morphologic discriminant analysis

Measurements Description
Upper anterior transversal width (UATW) Distance between the cusp tips of upper deciduous or permanent canines.
Upper posterior transversal width (UPTW) Distance between upper permanent molars intersection points between transversal and buccal grooves
Upper anterior sagittal length (UASL) Line drawn from the palatal interincisal midpoint, perpendicular to the conjunction line between the centers of first premolars.
Upper posterior sagittal length (UPSL) Line drawn from the palatal interincisal point, perpendicular to the conjunction line between the distal groove of first molars (or contact point between first and second molar).
Upper-molar alveolar width (UM-AW) Distance between permanent upper first molar, considering the crossing point between lingual groove and gingival border.
Upper arch length (UAL) Sum of right and left distances between the upper incisors most anterior point and second upper deciduous molar or permanent premolar and upper first permanent molar contact point.
Lower anterior transversal width (LATW) In deciduous dentition, distance between the disto-labial cusp tips of lower first deciduous molars; in permanent dentition, distance between first and second premolars contact point.
Lower posterior transversal width (LPTW) Distance between the disto-labial cusp tips of lower first permanent molars.
Lower anterior sagittal length (LASL) Line drawn from the lingual interincisal midpoint, perpendicular to the conjunction line used to measure lower anterior transversal width.
Lower posterior sagittal length (LPSL) Line drawn from the lingual interincisal point, perpendicular to the conjunction line used to measure lower intermolar width.
Lower arch length (LAL) Sum of right and left distances between the lower incisors most anterior point and second lower deciduous molar or permanent premolar and lower first permanent molar contact point.
Palatal area (area) Measure of palatal surface, comprised within the crossing point between lingual groove and gingival border of both deciduous and permanent upper incisors, canines, premolars and molars.
ANB Angle between N-A and N-B
WITS appraisal (Wits) Distance determined by the distance between the orthogonal projections of points A and B on the functional occlusal plane
FMA Angle between Frankfurt plane and mandibular plane
SN^GoGn Angle between Sella-Nasion and Gonion-Gnation
GSn^SnPg Angle between Glabella-Subnasal and Subnasal-Pogonion