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Table 2 Descriptive statistics of U1-NL and L1-ML values before and after the treatment for both groups, group 1 (individualized CAD/CAM system) and group 2 (conventional self-ligating system)

From: Clinical effects with customized brackets and CAD/CAM technology: a prospective controlled study

Measurement Group Before treatment (Median [range]) After treatment (Median [range]) P values Wilcoxon test (effect size) Absolute difference (Median [range]) p Values U test (effect size)
U1-NL (°) Group 1 111.4 [98.0; 126.6] 115.2 [101.6; 125.2] 0.008a (0.654) 3.2 [0.7; 10.8] 0.206b (0.085)
Group 2 114.5 [97.3; 129.3] 114.7 [98.8; 127.2] 0.191a (0.654) 5.5 [0.3; 16.5]
L1-ML (°) Group 1 96.4 [87.7; 105.8] 99.4 [87.8; 107.3] 0.006a (0.721) 4.4 [0.3; 13.9] 0.016b (0.866)
Group 2 94.5 [82.5; 106.8] 101.5 [90.7; 116.7]  < 0.001a (1.584) 8.5 [2.1; 18.7]
  1. Matched pairs (before vs. after treatment, B-A) were compared with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and pairwise comparisons of the measurements between group 1 and group 2 were analysed using Mann–Whitney U test, and p values and effect sizes (Cohen’s d) reported
  2. aAsymptotic significance, bexact significance