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Table 3 CAD/CAM group analysis with reference to the achievement of teeth positions and their three-dimensional alignment as planned in the set-ups for the maxilla

From: Clinical effects with customized brackets and CAD/CAM technology: a prospective controlled study

  All teeth
(n = 252)
Anterior teeth
(n = 108)
Posterior teeth
(n = 144)
Effect size
(Cohen’s d)
U test (A-P)
p Values Sig. levela
Absolute inclination (°) 4.30 [0; 18.40] 4.30 [0; 17.30] 4.25 [0; 18.40] 0.002 0.420 N.s
Absolute angulation (°) 2.80 [0; 42.00] 2.20 [0; 42.00] 3.20 [0.10; 31.00] 0.143 0.020 *
Absolute rotation (°) 3.75 [0; 32.70] 4.65 [0; 23.60] 3.20 [0.20; 32.70] 0.271 0.017 *
Absolute mesial movement (mm) 0.51 [0; 7.34] 0.50 [0; 2.09] 0.51 [0; 7.34] 0.193 0.357 N.s
Absolute vestibular movement (mm) 0.84 [0; 5.07] 0.70 [0.01; 2.23] 1.02 [0; 5.07] 0.544 0.001 ***
Absolute occlusal movement (mm) 0.63 [0.01; 5.19] 0.57 [0.01; 5.19] 0.68 [0.01; 3.21] 0.153 0.065 N.s
  1. Absolute values of discrepancies (median [min; max]) of the dental arch for all teeth and for both frontal and posterior teeth separately and their effect size (Cohen’s d) were reported. Given are inclination, angulation, rotation, mesial (sagittal) position, vestibular (transversal) position and occlusal (vertical) position. Mann–Whitney U test was applied to compare anterior and posterior teeth
  2. a*, p < 0.05; ***, p ≤ 0.001; n.s. not significant