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Table 3 Questionnaires (means ± SD)

From: Mini-implant assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE) effects on adult obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and quality of life: a multi-center prospective controlled trial

  Control Intervention T1 intergroups comparison (homogeneity)
T1 T2 T1 T2
ESS 11.73 ± 3.27 12.16 ± 3.90 12.87 ± 4.12 7.32 ± 3.61** 0.928
QSQ (total) 4.70 ± 0.95 4.92 ± 0.71 4.28 ± 1.10 5.52 ± 0.50* 0.120
QSQ I (sleepiness) 3.92 ± 1.06 4.12 ± 1.17 3.82 ± 1.26 5.46 ± 0.75* 0.529
QSQ II (diurnal symptons) 4.10 ± 0.99 4.25 ± 1.22 3.90 ± 1.12 5.26 ± 0.70* 0.629
QSQ III (nocturnal symptons) 5.29 ± 0.99 5.43 ± 0.81 4.36 ± 0.95 4.90 ± 1.12* 0.040*
QSQ IV (emotions) 5.17 ± 1.07 4.78 ± 1.26 4.35 ± 1.15 5.70 ± 0.60* 0.181
QSQ V (social interactions) 5.05 ± 1.23 5.34 ± 1.48 4.95 ± 0.80 5.14 ± 0.84 0.320
  1. *Intra-group statistical significance (Wilcoxon signed rank) between T1 and T2 (displayed on T2 column), where: *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001