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Table 4 Displacements of the central incisor in the y-direction and of the canine in the x- and y-directions (mm)

From: Biomechanical analysis of effective mandibular en-masse retraction using Class II elastics with a clear aligner: a finite element study

  Axis Control MB DB ML DL AMB
C1 Y-axis 0.039 0.034 0.034 0.042 0.041 0.034
R1 Y-axis 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.019 0.018
C3 X-axis − 0.027 − 0.024 − 0.024 − 0.027 − 0.026 − 0.025
  Y-axis 0.075 0.077 0.073 0.058 0.057 0.077
R3 X-axis 0.008 0.010 0.008 0.004 0.004 0.010
  Y-axis − 0.029 − 0.030 − 0.029 − 0.021 − 0.020 − 0.031
  1. X: + mesial, -distal; Y: + lingual, -buccal; Z: + occlusal, -apical; C1: the central incisal edge; R1: the apex of the central incisor; C3: the cusp of the canine; R3: the apex of the canine