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Table 2 Device-assisted treatment techniques and their effect on tooth movement

From: Acceleration of tooth movement during orthodontic treatment - a frontier in Orthodontics

Author Physical approach used Rate Animal/human Acceleration
Nishimura [35] Vibrational stimulation 60 Hz, 1.0 m/s (2/8 min/day) Rats Yes
Kau et al. [36] Resonance vibration 20 to 30 Hz/20 min/day Human Yes
Davidovitch [37] Direct electrical current 7 V Animal Yes
Fujita et al. 2008 [38] Low-level laser 810-nm Ga-Al-As diode laser and continuous waves at 100 mW Rats Yes
Kawasaki [39] Low-level laser 830-nm Ga-Al-As diode laser and continuous waves at 100 mW Rats Yes
Limpanichkul [40] Low-level laser 860-nm Ga-Al-As diode and continuous waves at 100 mW Human No
Kau [41] Low-level laser 850-nm LED and continuous wave 60 mW Human Yes
Doshi-Mehta G [42] Low-level laser 800-nm Ga-Al-As diode laser and continuous wave 0.25 mW Human Yes
  1. LED, Light-Emitting Diode