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Table 2 Definition of skeletal landmarks and linear measurements

From: Comparison between rapid and mixed maxillary expansion through an assessment of dento-skeletal effects on posteroanterior cephalometry

Skeletal landmarks Linear measurements
1. Euryon (Eu) - the most lateral point of the cranial vault 1. Euryon width
2. Lateroorbitale (Lo) - the intersection of the lateral wall of the orbit and the greater wing of the sphenoid (the oblique line) 2. Lateroorbitale width
3. Medioorbitale (Mo) - the most medial point of the orbital orifice 3. Medioorbitale width
4. Zygomatic (Zyg) - the most lateral point of the zygomatic arch 4. Bizygomatic width
5. Condylar lateral (Cdl) - the point located at the lateral pole of the condylar head. 5. Condylar width
6. Zygomandibulare (Zmd) - the intersection between the lower margin of the zygomatic bone and the lateral contour of the mandibular ramus 6. Zygomandibulare width
7. Lateronasal (Ln) - the most lateral point of the nasal cavity 7. Lateronasal width
8. Maxillomandibulare (Mmd) - the intersection between the lower margin of the maxilla and the medial contour of the mandibular ramus 8. Maxillomandibulare width
9. Maxillare (Mx) - the point located at the depth of the concavity of the lateral maxillary contour, at the junction of the maxilla and the zygomatic buttress 9. Maxillary width
10. Mastoid (Ma) - the lowest point of the mastoid process 10. Mastoid width
11. Gonion (Go) - the point located at the gonial angle of the mandible 11. Bigonial width
12. Antegonion (Ag) - the point located at the antegonial notch 12. Antegonial width