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Table 2 Changes in the skeletal tissue among treatment and control group subjects

From: Effects of twin-block appliance on the anatomy of pharyngeal airway passage (PAP) in class II malocclusion subjects

Variables Groups Comparison of mean difference among treatment and control groups (P-value)
Treatment group Control group
Pre-treatment (T0) 6 months post-treatment (T1) Significance (P-value) Pre-follow-up (T0) 6 months post-follow-up (T1) Significance (P-value)
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
SNA (°) 81.10 ± 1.80 81.43 ± 1.86 0.097NS 81.28 ± 1.71 81.47 ± 1.87 0.049* 0.547 NS
Maxillary length (mm) (ANS-PNS) 48.21 ± 3.56 48.70 ± 3.43 0.089NS 48.50 ± 3.46 49.17 ± 3.50 0.000*** 0.275NS
Effective maxillary length (mm) (Co-A) 80.27 ± 5.37 80.56 ± 5.14 0.303NS 81.19 ± 5.41 82.36 ± 5.04 0.002** 0.040*
SNB (°) 73.95 ± 1.91 75.85 ± 1.66 0.000*** 73.94 ± 1.73 74.33 ± 1.75 0.069NS 0.000***
Mandibular length (mm) (Go-Pog MP) 63.21 ± 3.99 64.39 ± 4.14 0.000*** 63.35 ± 4.09 63.82 ± 4.36 0.135NS 0.004**
Effective mandibular length (mm) (Co-Gn) 96.55 ± 5.23 99.90 ± 5.54 0.000*** 96.39 ± 6.84 98.52 ± 6.42 0.002** 0.007**
FMA(°) 25.48 ± 2.15 26.55 ± 2.44 0.000*** 24.03 ± 2.76 24.22 ± 2.71 0.0130NS 0.004**
  1. SD indicates standard deviation; NS, nonsignificant; *P < .05; **P < .01; ***P < .001.
  2. SNA, angle between ‘S,’ ‘N,’ and ‘A’; it represents the antero-posterior position of the maxilla in relation to the anterior cranial base; maxillary length, the linear distance between ‘ANS’ and ‘PNS’ points; effective maxillary length, the linear distance between ‘Co’ and ‘point A’; SNB, angle between ‘S,’ ‘N,’ and ‘B’; it represents the antero-posterior position of the mandible in relation to the anterior cranial base; mandibular length, the linear distance between ‘Go’ and the intersection of the perpendicular drawn from ‘Pog’ on mandibular plane (Go-Me); effective mandibular length, the linear distance between the ‘Co’ and ‘Gn’; FMA indicates Frankfort mandibular plane angle.