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Table 4 The changes in the posterior pharyngeal wall thickness (PPWT) among treatment and control group subjects

From: Effects of twin-block appliance on the anatomy of pharyngeal airway passage (PAP) in class II malocclusion subjects

Variables Groups Comparison of mean difference among treatment and control groups (P-value)
Treatment group Control group
Pre-treatment (T0) 6 months post-treatment (T1) Significance (P-value) Pre-follow-up (T0) 6 months Post-follow-up (T1) Significance (P-value)
Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
PPWT 1 (mm) 15.68 ± 4.15 15.97 ± 4.18 0.646NS 16.06 ± 4.56 14.54 ± 3.36 0.015* 0.226NS
PPWT 2 (mm) 11.02 ± 3.19 11.02 ± 3.00 0.991NS 10.78 ± 2.99 10.23 ± 2.67 0.217NS 0.370NS
PPWT 3 (mm) 4.66 ± 1.41 4.84 ± 1.83 0.521NS 5.52 ± 1.65 5.00 ± 1.84 0.209NS 0.150NS
PPWT 4 (mm) 4.38 ± 2.41 4.74 ± 2.27 0.338NS 5.09 ± 2.84 4.65 ± 2.72 0.239NS 0.875NS
PPWT 5 (mm) 4.10 ± 1.04 4.10 ± 1.07 0.988NS 4.45 ± 1.14 4.32 ± 1.22 0.534NS 0.684NS
PPWT 6 (mm) 3.28 ± 0.94 3.52 ± 0.84 0.242NS 3.65 ± 1.05 3.44 ± 0.83 0.361NS 0.896NS
  1. SD indicates standard deviation; NS, non-significant; *p<0.05.
  2. PPWT1, posterior pharyngeal wall thickness at nasopharyngeal space 1; PPWT2, posterior pharyngeal wall thickness at nasopharyngeal space 2; PPWT3, posterior pharyngeal wall thickness at oro-pharyngeal space 1; PPWT4, posterior pharyngeal wall thickness at oropharyngeal space 2; PPWT5, posterior pharyngeal wall thickness at hypopharyngeal space 1; PPWT6, posterior pharyngeal wall thickness at hypopharyngeal space 2.