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Table 5 Summary of different reported populations

From: Sagittal lip positions in different skeletal malocclusions: a cephalometric analysis

Study Sample population Age in years Sample size Sample selection Soft tissue analysis Conclusion
2012 Nigerian population 18 to 25 100 Class I molar and canine relationship, a symmetrical face Steiner, Rickets, Burstone, Merrifield and Holdway More protrusive upper and lower lip as compared to normative values reported for Caucasians
2002 Kwangju sample (Korean population) 18 to 20 60 Normal occlusion, class I molar and canine relationship Steiner, Rickets, Merrifield and Holdway Greater degree of lip protrusion in comparison to European-American samples
2004 Singapore Chinese children Mean 12.5 girls, 12.7 boys 81 Class incisor relationship (British standards institute, 1983) Rickets E line Boys had more protrusive lips than Malaysian Chinese and less protrusive lips than Hong Kong Chinese
1992 Chinese adult 18 to 24 72 Harmonious facial profiles with presence of intact dentition, no difference was made between orthodontic treated and non-treated subjects Legan and Burstone analysis, Holdway analysis Upper and lower lip not in balance with H line, upper and lower lip were positioned more anteriorly
1972 Males of Kwangtung province origin (Cantonese Chinese) 18 to 33 30 Clinically excellent occlusion, class I molar, pleasing profile E line and B line Lips protruded beyond E line
2013 Bangladeshi population 23.2 to 14.6 98 Class I occlusion B line Females had more protrude lips compared to Caucasians and less protruded lips than Japanese, males no significant difference between Caucasian and Japanese
  1. The relevant soft tissue analysis and conclusions are only mentioned in brief.