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Table 3 Periodontal outcomes including the follow-up periods

From: The effects of fixed and removable orthodontic retainers: a systematic review

Study

Intervention

Plaque Index

Gingival Index

Calculus

Bleeding on probing

Probing attachment level

Al-Nimri et al. 2009 [25]

- 0.036″ Round stainless steel fixed retainer (canines only) (n = 31)

Mean after at least 12 months, 1.02 ± 0.52

Mean after at least 12 months, 1.19 ± 0.44

   

- 0.015″ multistrand fixed retainer (n = 31)

Mean after at least 12 months, 1.21 ± 0.48

Mean after at least 12 months, 1.34 ± 0.39

   

Bazargani et al. 2012 [14]

- 0.0195″ multistrand fixed retainer with two-step bonded resin adhesive (n = 25)

  

4 % (2 years)

  

- 0.0195″ multistrand fixed retainer with non-resin adhesive (n = 26)

  

31 % (2 years)

  

Torkan et al. 2014 [16]

- Fiber-reinforced composite resin fixed retainer (n = 15)

Maxilla: median 0 (baseline), 1.66 (6 months)

Mandible: median 0.91 (baseline), 2 (6 months)

Maxilla: median 0.5 (baseline), 1 (6 months)

Mandible: median 0.33 (baseline) 1 (6 months)

Maxilla: Median 0 (baseline and 6 months)

Mandible: Median 0 (baseline), 0.33 (6 months)

Maxilla: Median 0.16 (baseline), 0.5 (6 months)

Mandible: Median 0 (baseline), 0.66 (6 months)

 

- 0.0175″ multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer (n = 15)

Maxilla: median 0.33 (baseline), 0.66 (6 months)

Mandible: median 0.33 (baseline), 0.91 (6 months)

Maxilla: median 0 (baseline), 0.83 (6 months)

Mandible: median 0.16 (baseline), 0.41 (6 months)

Maxilla and mandible: Median 0 (baseline and 6 months)

Maxilla: median 0 (baseline), 0.5 (6 months)

Mandible: median 0 (baseline) 0.33 (6 months)

 

Tacken et al. 2010 [31]

- Glass fiber-reinforced fixed retainer (500 unidirectional glass fibers) (n = 45)

6 months, 1.88 ± 0.74

12 months, 2.32 ± 0.93

18 months, 2.25 ± 0.78

24 months, 2.11 ± 0.73

6 months, 1.20 ± 0.43

12 months, 1.00 ± 0.30

18 months, 1.28 ± 0.36

24 months, 1.51 ± 0.45

 

6 months, 0.72 ± 0.22

12 months, 0.89 ± 0.19

18 month, 0.82 ± 0.23

24 months, 1.00 ± 0.35

 

- Glass fiber-reinforced fixed retainer (1000 unidirectional glass fibers) (n = 48)

6 months, 2.03 ± 0.84

12 months, 2.12 ± 0.77

18 months, 2.48 ± 0.69

24 months, 2.18 ± 0.79

6 months, 1.09 ± 0.46

12 months, 1.09 ± 0.34

18 months, 1.20 ± 0.33

24 months, 1.55 ± 0.37

 

6 months, 0.76 ± 0.18

12 months, 0.81 ± 0.21

18 months, 0.89 ± 0.23

24 months, 1.06 ± 0.29

 

- 0.0215″ coaxial fixed retainer (n = 91)

6 months, 1.74 ± 0.92

12 months, 2.09 ± 0.82

18 months, 2.07 ± 0.76

24 months, 2.14 ± 0.78

6 months, .0.71 ± 0.29

12 months, 0.61 ± 0.29

18 months, 0.70 ± 0.27

24 months, 0.98 ± 0.54

 

6 months, 0.46 ± 0.18

12 months, 0.55 ± 0.19

18 months, 0.57 ± 0.21

24 months, 0.84 ± 0.38

 

Liu et al. 2010 [23]

- 0.75-mm fiber-reinforced composite fixed retainer (n = 30)

   

Baseline, 3.50

6 months, 10.17

12 months, 11.12

Baseline, 6.33

6 months: 8.51 mm

12 months: 9.24 mm

- 0.9-mm multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer (n = 30)

   

Baseline, 3.67; 6 months, 8.89; 12 months, 9.24

Baseline, 5.92

6 months: 8.08 mm

12 months: 8.92 mm

Artun et al. 1997 [28]

- 0.032″ plain fixed retainer (canines only) (n = 11)

Baseline, 0.32

3 years, 0.06

Baseline, 1.01

3 years, 0.66

Baseline, 16.67

3 years, 3.33

 

Mean attachment loss at 3 years, 0.85 mm

- 0.032″ spiral fixed retainer (canines only) (n = 13)

Baseline, 0.17

3 years, 0.10

Baseline, 0.95

3 years, 0.49

Baseline: 8.64

3 years, 3.09

 

Mean attachment loss at 3 years, 0.63 mm

- 0.0205″ spiral wire fixed retainer (n = 11)

Baseline, 0.26

3 years, 0.13

Baseline, 1.14

3 years, 0.39

Baseline, 17.36

3 years, 17.36

 

Mean attachment loss at 3 years, 0.62 mm

- Removable retainer (n = 14)

Baseline, 0.31

3 years, 0.13

Baseline, 1.08

3 years, 0.77

Baseline, 9.52

3 years, 8.33

 

Mean attachment loss at 3 years, 0.72 mm

Heier et al. 2010 [30]

- 0.0175″ multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer (n = 22)

Baseline, 2.78

6 months, 3.03

Baseline, 0.79

6 months, 0.40

Baseline and 6 months, 0.20

Baseline, 0.32

6 months, 0.23

 

- Hawley retainer (n = 14)

Baseline, 2.78

6 months, 2.52

Baseline, 0.80

6 months, 0.74

Baseline, 0.05

6 months, 0.06

Baseline, 0.34

6 months, 0.22