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Table 3 Periodontal outcomes including the follow-up periods

From: The effects of fixed and removable orthodontic retainers: a systematic review

Study Intervention Plaque Index Gingival Index Calculus Bleeding on probing Probing attachment level
Al-Nimri et al. 2009 [25] - 0.036″ Round stainless steel fixed retainer (canines only) (n = 31) Mean after at least 12 months, 1.02 ± 0.52 Mean after at least 12 months, 1.19 ± 0.44    
- 0.015″ multistrand fixed retainer (n = 31) Mean after at least 12 months, 1.21 ± 0.48 Mean after at least 12 months, 1.34 ± 0.39    
Bazargani et al. 2012 [14] - 0.0195″ multistrand fixed retainer with two-step bonded resin adhesive (n = 25)    4 % (2 years)   
- 0.0195″ multistrand fixed retainer with non-resin adhesive (n = 26)    31 % (2 years)   
Torkan et al. 2014 [16] - Fiber-reinforced composite resin fixed retainer (n = 15) Maxilla: median 0 (baseline), 1.66 (6 months) Mandible: median 0.91 (baseline), 2 (6 months) Maxilla: median 0.5 (baseline), 1 (6 months) Mandible: median 0.33 (baseline) 1 (6 months) Maxilla: Median 0 (baseline and 6 months) Mandible: Median 0 (baseline), 0.33 (6 months) Maxilla: Median 0.16 (baseline), 0.5 (6 months) Mandible: Median 0 (baseline), 0.66 (6 months)  
- 0.0175″ multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer (n = 15) Maxilla: median 0.33 (baseline), 0.66 (6 months) Mandible: median 0.33 (baseline), 0.91 (6 months) Maxilla: median 0 (baseline), 0.83 (6 months) Mandible: median 0.16 (baseline), 0.41 (6 months) Maxilla and mandible: Median 0 (baseline and 6 months) Maxilla: median 0 (baseline), 0.5 (6 months) Mandible: median 0 (baseline) 0.33 (6 months)  
Tacken et al. 2010 [31] - Glass fiber-reinforced fixed retainer (500 unidirectional glass fibers) (n = 45) 6 months, 1.88 ± 0.74 12 months, 2.32 ± 0.93 18 months, 2.25 ± 0.78 24 months, 2.11 ± 0.73 6 months, 1.20 ± 0.43 12 months, 1.00 ± 0.30 18 months, 1.28 ± 0.36 24 months, 1.51 ± 0.45   6 months, 0.72 ± 0.22 12 months, 0.89 ± 0.19 18 month, 0.82 ± 0.23 24 months, 1.00 ± 0.35  
- Glass fiber-reinforced fixed retainer (1000 unidirectional glass fibers) (n = 48) 6 months, 2.03 ± 0.84 12 months, 2.12 ± 0.77 18 months, 2.48 ± 0.69 24 months, 2.18 ± 0.79 6 months, 1.09 ± 0.46 12 months, 1.09 ± 0.34 18 months, 1.20 ± 0.33 24 months, 1.55 ± 0.37   6 months, 0.76 ± 0.18 12 months, 0.81 ± 0.21 18 months, 0.89 ± 0.23 24 months, 1.06 ± 0.29  
- 0.0215″ coaxial fixed retainer (n = 91) 6 months, 1.74 ± 0.92 12 months, 2.09 ± 0.82 18 months, 2.07 ± 0.76 24 months, 2.14 ± 0.78 6 months, .0.71 ± 0.29 12 months, 0.61 ± 0.29 18 months, 0.70 ± 0.27 24 months, 0.98 ± 0.54   6 months, 0.46 ± 0.18 12 months, 0.55 ± 0.19 18 months, 0.57 ± 0.21 24 months, 0.84 ± 0.38  
Liu et al. 2010 [23] - 0.75-mm fiber-reinforced composite fixed retainer (n = 30)     Baseline, 3.50 6 months, 10.17 12 months, 11.12 Baseline, 6.33 6 months: 8.51 mm 12 months: 9.24 mm
- 0.9-mm multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer (n = 30)     Baseline, 3.67; 6 months, 8.89; 12 months, 9.24 Baseline, 5.92 6 months: 8.08 mm 12 months: 8.92 mm
Artun et al. 1997 [28] - 0.032″ plain fixed retainer (canines only) (n = 11) Baseline, 0.32 3 years, 0.06 Baseline, 1.01 3 years, 0.66 Baseline, 16.67 3 years, 3.33   Mean attachment loss at 3 years, 0.85 mm
- 0.032″ spiral fixed retainer (canines only) (n = 13) Baseline, 0.17 3 years, 0.10 Baseline, 0.95 3 years, 0.49 Baseline: 8.64 3 years, 3.09   Mean attachment loss at 3 years, 0.63 mm
- 0.0205″ spiral wire fixed retainer (n = 11) Baseline, 0.26 3 years, 0.13 Baseline, 1.14 3 years, 0.39 Baseline, 17.36 3 years, 17.36   Mean attachment loss at 3 years, 0.62 mm
- Removable retainer (n = 14) Baseline, 0.31 3 years, 0.13 Baseline, 1.08 3 years, 0.77 Baseline, 9.52 3 years, 8.33   Mean attachment loss at 3 years, 0.72 mm
Heier et al. 2010 [30] - 0.0175″ multistrand stainless steel fixed retainer (n = 22) Baseline, 2.78 6 months, 3.03 Baseline, 0.79 6 months, 0.40 Baseline and 6 months, 0.20 Baseline, 0.32 6 months, 0.23  
- Hawley retainer (n = 14) Baseline, 2.78 6 months, 2.52 Baseline, 0.80 6 months, 0.74 Baseline, 0.05 6 months, 0.06 Baseline, 0.34 6 months, 0.22