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Table 1 Results: trial design, treatment modalities, characteristics of the samples

From: Systematic review for orthodontic and orthopedic treatments for anterior open bite in the mixed dentition

Selected references Year of publication Study design Treatment modalities Sample size Age (years) Sex
Albogha H et al. [24] RMI vs. MBB 15 (RMI) 8.1–13.5 (RMI) 4M, 11F (RMI)
  2015 15 (MBB) 8.5–13.5 (MBB) 6M, 9F (MBB)
  P, L, CT
Mucedero M et al. [35] Q-H/C vs. UCG 28 (Q-H/C) 8.2 ± 1.3 (Q-H/C) 11M, 7F (Q-H/C)
  2013 20 (UCG) 8.1 ± 0.4 (UCG) 10M, 10F (UCG)
  R, L, CCT
Torres FC et al. [33] RPC + VCC vs. FPC + VCC 30 (RPC + VCC) 8.33 ± 0.73 (RPC + VCC) 8M, 22F (RPC + VCC)
  2012 30 (FPC + VCC) 8.54 ± 0.88 (FPC + VCC) 11M, 19F (FPC + VCC)
  P, L, CT
Cassis MA et al. [34] BS + VCC vs. UCG 30 (BS + VCC) 8.14 ± 0.73 (BS + VCC) 9M, 21F (BS + VCC)
  2012 30 (UCG) 8.36 ± 1.05 (UCG) 30.5M, 25F (UCG)
  P, L, CCT
Doshi UH et al. [23] SLBB vs. MBB 10 (SLBB) 8–13(SLBB) 5M, 5F (SLBB)
  2010 10 (MBB) 8–13 (MBB) 3M, 7F (MBB)
  P, L, RCT 10 (UCG) 8–13 (UCG)
Giuntini V et al. [32] Q-H/C vs. RPC 20 (Q-H/C) 8.4 ± 1.4 (Q-H/C) 5M, 15F (Q-H/C)
  2008 20 (RPC) 8.4 ± 1 (RPC) 9M, 11F (RPC)
  R, L, CT
Cinsar A et al. [22] RMI vs. UCG 10 (RMI) M 11 ± 0.4; 3M, 7F (RMI)
  (subgroups) 10 (UCG) F 10.3 ± 0.2 3M, 7F (UCG)
  2007 (RMI)
  R, L, CCT  
M 11 ± 1;
F 10.8 ± 0.9 (UCG)
Defraia E et al. [41] OBB vs. uCG 20 (OBB) 8.2 ± 0.8 (OBB) 11M, 9F (OBB)
  2007   23 (UCG) 10.8 ± 1.5 (UCG) 23 (UCG)
  R, L, CCT
Cozza P et al. [30] Q-H/C vs. UCG 21 (Q-H/C) 8.4 ± 1.5 (Q-H/C) 6M, 15F (Q-H/C)
  2007 21 (UCG) 8.6 ± 11M (UCG) 10M, 11F (UCG)
  R, L, CCT
Cozza P et al. [31] Q-H/C vs. OBB 21 (Q-H/C) 8.4 ± 1.4 (Q-H/C) 6M, 15F (Q-H/C)
  2007   20 (OBB)   
  R, L, CT
Pedrin F et al. [27] RPC + VCC vs. UCG 30(RPC + VCC) 8.61 (RPC + VCC) 10M, 20F (RPC + VCC)
  2006 30 (UCG) 8.33 (UCG) 7M, 23F (UCG)
  P, L, CCT
Torres F et al. [28] RPC + VCC vs. UCG 30(RPC + VCC) 8.33 (RPC + VCC) 8M, 22F (RPC + VCC)
  2006 30 (UCG) 8.61 (UCG) 7M, 23F (UCG)
  P, L, RCT
Cozza P et al. [29] Q-H/C vs. UCG 23 (Q-H/C) 8.4 ± 1.4 (Q-H/C) 7M, 16F (Q-H/C)
  2006 23 (UCG) 9.1 ± 1.6 (UCG) 10M, 13F (UCG)
  R, L, CCT
Iscan HN et al. [16] VCC vs. UCG 18 (VCC) 8.08–11.11 (VCC) 6M, 12F (VCC)
  2002 17 (UCG) 8.40–12.26 (UCG) 6M, 11F (UCG)
  P, L, CCT
Bazzucchi A et al. [21] MBB vs. UCG 29 (MBB) 11.08 ± 3.08 (MBB) 6M, 23F (MBB)
  1999 29 (UCG) 11 ± 3.08 (UCG) 6M, 23F (UCG)
  R, L, CCT
Iscan HN and Sarisoy L [20] PBB5 vs. PBB10 vs. UCG 13 (PBB5) 8.9–13.5 (PBB5) 4M, 9F (PBB5)
  1997 12 (PBB10) 8.7–14.5 (PBB10) 3M, 9F (PBB10)
  P, L, CCT 14 (UCG) 8.9–13.6 (UCG) 3M, 11F (UCG)
Erbay E et al. [40] FR + LSE vs. UCG 20 (FR + LSE) 8.7 ± 0.5 (OBB) 7M, 13F (FR + LSE)
  1995 20 (UCG) 8.9 ± 1.2 (UCG) 7M, 13F (UCG)
  P, L, RCT
Iscan HN et al. [19] SLBB vs. PBB + VCC 11 (SLBB) 8.62–13.54 (SLBB) Not declared
  1992 12 (PBB + VCC) 7.39–11.67 (PBB + VCC)
  R, L, CT
Weinbach JR and Smith RJ. [39] OBB vs. UCG 26 (OBB) 7.08–12.88 27M, 12F
  1992 13 (OBB + HPH)
  R, L, CCT Published normal growth standards
Kuster R and Ingervall B [18] SLBB vs. MBB 22 (SLBB) 7.4–11.56(SLBB) 11M, 11F (SLBB)
  1992 11 (MBB) 9.72–14.4 (MBB) 4M, 7F (MBB)
  R, L, CT
Ngan P et al. [38] A-HPH vs. UCG 8 (A-HPH) 10.24(A-HPH) 2M, 6F
  1992 8 (UCG) 10.24 (UCG)
  R, L, CCT
Haydar B and Enacar A [37] FR + LSE vs. UCG 11 (FR) 8.8 ± 1.17 (OBB) Not available
  1992   10 (UCG) 8.3 ± 1.06 (UCG)
  P, L, CCT
Kiliaridis S et al. [17] MBB vs. PBB 10 (MBB) 8.9–16.1 3M, 7F (MBB)
  1990 10 (PBB) 3M, 7F (PBB)
  P, L, CT
Frankel R [36] FR + LSE vs. UCG 30 (FR) 7 (FR) Not declared
  1983 11 (UCG) 8 (UCG)
  R, L, CCT
  1. Legends: Study design: P prospective, L longitudinal, CT clinical trial, i.e., comparison of at least two treatment modalities without any untreated or normal group involved, R retrospective, CCT controlled clinical trial, RCT randomized controlled trial. Treatment modalities: RMI rapid molar intruder, MBB magnetic bite block, Q-H/C quad-helix/crib, UCG untreated control group, RPC removable palatal crib, VCC vertical chin cup, FPC fixed palatal crib, BS bonded spurs, SLBB spring-loaded bite block, OBB open bite bionator, PBB5 posterior bite blocks 5 mm, PBB10 posterior bite blocks 10 mm, FR Fränkel appliance, LSE lip seal exercises, A-HPH Teuscher appliance. Sex: M male, F female