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Table 2 Results: success rate, treatment duration, reduction of open bite and divergency, side effects and stability

From: Systematic review for orthodontic and orthopedic treatments for anterior open bite in the mixed dentition

Selected references Success rate Treatment duration/observation time Time of daily appliance wear (h) Reduction of open bite and divergency Methods of measurement Side effects Follow-up/stability
Albogha H et al. [24] 33 % (RMI) 4 months 24 h Yes open bite Cephalometry Both hindered oral hygiene. No/no stability information
27 % (MBB) Yes divergency
Mucedero M et al. [35] 86 % 18 months/no retention information 24 h Yes open bite Cephalometry No At least 5 years/no relapse (data not suitable with inclusion criteria)
Yes divergency
Torres FC et al. [33] 70 % (FPC + VCC) 12 months/no 24 h (RPC, FPC) Yes open bite Cephalometry No No/no stability information
50 % (RPC + VCC) Retention information 14-16 h (VCC) No divergency
Cassis MA et al. [34] 86.7 % 12 months/no retention information 24 h (BS) Yes open bite Cephalometry No No/no stability information
14-16 h (VCC) Yes divergency
Doshi UH et al. [23] Not declared Until an edge-to-edge bite was achieved (max 8 months)/retention with passive BB for 10 months not declared Yes open bite Clinical evaluation, cephalometry, electromyography Broken spring replaced in 7 pz (SLBB) 10 months/insignificant dentoalveolar relapse
Yes divergency
Giuntini V et al. [32] 90 % (Q-H/C) 18 months/no retention information 24 h (Q-H/C) Yes open bite Cephalometry No No/no stability information
60 % (RPC) 16 h (RPC) Yes divergency
Cinsar A et al. [22] (subgroups) 100 % 9–11 months/no retention information 24 h Yes open bite Cephalometry No No/no stability information
Yes divergency
Defraia E et al. [41] 85 % 18 months/about 12 months of retention with OBB 24 h Yes open bite Cephalometry No No/no stability information
Yes divergency
Cozza P et al. [30] 85 % 18 months/no retention (16 patients); removable appliance for retention for 1 year (5 patients) 24 h Yes open bite Cephalometry No 2 years/relapse in 15 % of subjects
Yes divergency
Cozza P et al. [31] Not declared Active treatment 24 h (Q-H/C) Yes open bite Cephalometry No 1 year/no relapse (QH/C)
18 months/no retention (Q-H/C) 24 h (OBB) Yes divergency (QH/C more than OBB)
No stability information (OBB)
18 months/no retention, with the exception of a few patients who continued to use the OBB at night (OBB)
Observation time
2.6 years ± 9 months (Q-H/C)
2.5 years ± 1.2 years (UCG)
Pedrin F et al. [27] 80 % 12 months/no retention information 14–16 h Yes open bite Cephalometry No No/no stability information
No divergency
Torres F et al. [28] 80 % 12 months/no retention information 14–16 h Yes open bite Cephalometry No No/no stability information
No divergency
Cozza P et al. [29] 90 % 18 months/no retention information 24 h Yes open bite Cephalometry No No/No stability information
Yes divergency
Işcan HN et al. [16] 88 % 6–12 months until overbite was obtained (mean 9 months) no retention 16 h Yes open bite Cephalometry No No/no stability information
Yes divergency
Bazzucchi A et al. [21] Not declared 8 months (MBB) Not declared Yes openbite Cephalometry No Not suitable with inclusion criteria
9 months (uCG) Yes divergency
No retention information (Not statistically but clinically significant changes)
Işcan HN and Sarisoy L [20] 80 % (PBB5) 4–10 months, until an overbite of 1–1.5 mm was achieved (PBB5) 18 h Yes open bite Cephalometry No No/no stability information
66 % (PBB10)   Yes divergency
4–13 months, until an overbite of 1–1.5 mm was achieved (PBB10)
7–9 months (UCG)
No retention information
Erbay E et al. [40] Not declared 24 months (FR) 18 h Yes open bite Cephalometry No No/no stability information
24 months (UCG) Yes divergency
No retention information
Işcan HN et al. [19] 100 % 1–10 months until an overbite of 1–1.5 mm was achieved (SLBB) 16 h Yes open bite Cephalometry No No/no stability information
Yes divergency
3–9 months until an overbite of 1–1.5 mm was achieved (PBB) then worn only at night for retention
Weinbach JR and Smith RJ [39] 67 % had a reduction of open bite Mean 20 months Not declared Yes open bite Cephalometry No No/no stability information
No retention Yes divergency
Kuster R and Ingervall B [18] Not declared SLBB 1 year At night (SLBB) Yes open bite Bite force, cephalometry, electromyography Broken spring replaced in 12 pz (SLBB) 6 months/tendency to relapse (MBB)
MBB 3 months 24 h (MBB) Yes divergency
2 MBB patients: no retention
1 MBB: activator as retention for 1 year
No stability information (SLBB)
3 MBB patients: upper removable plate with posterior platforms 6–8 months
3 MBB patients 1 year multibanded appliance
Ngan P et al. [38] 100 % Mean 14 months until overcorrection of dental and skeletal relationship 2 h (first 3 days) than increased until 24 h (A) Yes open bite Cephalometry No No/no stability information
Yes divergency Study casts
No retention 12–14 h (HPH)
Haydar B and Enacar A [37] Not declared FR 1235 years Not available Yes open bite Cephalometry No No/no stability information
UCG 1024 years No divergency
Kiliaridis S et al. [17] 100 % 6 months 18 h Yes open bite Cephalometry, study casts, intra-oral photographs, monthly analysis of the stomatognatic system Lateral crossbite (MBB) No/no stability information
No retention Yes divergency
Effect declined with time (PBB)
Fränkel R et al. [36] Not declared No treatment and retention durations information Not declared Yes open bite Cephalometry No At least 4 years out of retention/Stability if lips
Observation time Yes divergency Sealed without muscular straint.
8 years Relapse rate not declared
  1. Legends: RMI rapid molar intruder, MBB magnetic bite block, Q-H/C quad-helix/crib, UCG untreated control group, RPC removable palatal crib, VCC vertical chin cup, FPC fixed palatal crib, BS bonded spurs, SLBB spring-loaded bite block, OBB open bite bionator, PBB5 posterior bite blocks 5 mm, PBB10 posterior bite blocks 10 mm, FR Fränkel appliance, LSE lip seal exercises, A-HPH Teuscher appliance