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Table 4 Mean (in cN) and standard deviation (SD) of 0.014-in. thermally activated NiTi wires, in the bracket systems (n = 10)

From: Force level of small diameter nickel-titanium orthodontic wires ligated with different methods

Elastic deflection Damon Bioquick EL ML p
Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.)
0.5 mm 23.84 (2.53) B 29.74 (6.99) B 6.93 (7.48) A 33.41 (14.70) B 0.000*
1 mm 63.61 (5.83) A 53.71 (8.81) A 64.39 (13.46) A 85.39 (13.89) B 0.000*
2 mm 114.03 (6.86) A 111.27 (6.96) A 108.28 (6.34) A 129.12 (5.66) B 0.000*
3 mm 168.95 (8.00) A 171.90 (7.78) A 212.77 (8.41) C 200.79 (8.53) B 0.000*
  1. *Statistically significant at p < 0.05