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Table 4 Mean (in cN) and standard deviation (SD) of 0.014-in. thermally activated NiTi wires, in the bracket systems (n = 10)

From: Force level of small diameter nickel-titanium orthodontic wires ligated with different methods

Elastic deflection Damon Bioquick EL ML p
Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.) Mean (S.D.)
0.5 mm 23.84 (2.53)
B
29.74 (6.99)
B
6.93 (7.48)
A
33.41 (14.70)
B
0.000*
1 mm 63.61 (5.83)
A
53.71 (8.81)
A
64.39 (13.46)
A
85.39 (13.89)
B
0.000*
2 mm 114.03 (6.86)
A
111.27 (6.96)
A
108.28 (6.34)
A
129.12 (5.66)
B
0.000*
3 mm 168.95 (8.00)
A
171.90 (7.78)
A
212.77 (8.41)
C
200.79 (8.53)
B
0.000*
  1. *Statistically significant at p < 0.05