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Table 1 Mean and standard deviation of the 14 factors of sleep apnea cephalometry and the respective p values of the comparison among the groups

From: A retrospective cephalometric study on upper airway spaces in different facial types

Measurements Brachyfacial Mesiofacial Dolichofacial p values
  Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD  
Cranial base
 Anterior base of the cranium (N-S) 69.82 5.49 67.86 4.27 66.45 5.34 0.203
Maxilla/mandibulla
 Maxillary length (ANS-PNS) 53.93 3.88 54.12 3.39 53.44 3.87 0.877
 Mandibular length (Me-Goc) 70.74 6.27 72.01 6.50 70.96 3.38 0.803
Nasopharynx
 Atlas-maxilla distance (At-PNS) 38.59 4.08 37.74 4.91 35.22 3.25 0.080
 Superior pharyngeal space (PPFS-PP1) 15.8 2.27 13.68 2.53 14.09 6.42 0.352
Oropharynx
 Middle pharyngeal space (PPFM-PAFM) 11.42 2.97 13.68 2.53 12.03 4.03 0.474
 TGL (tongue length) (Tt-P) 71.51 4.59 69.41 6.58 67.95 5.43 0.186
 TGH (tongue height) (Tt-DI/P) 23.85 5.27 22.3 3.45 20.70 3.43 0.129
 Median posterior palatal space (Pp2-Pp2’) 12.91a 2.74 12.64ab 2.30 10.64b 1.83 0.020*
 Soft palate length (PNS-P) 34.39 8.42 31.07 4.16 33.12 3.96 0.307
Laryngopharynx
 Inferior pharyngeal space (C3’-H’) 16.83 5.33 14.00 4.79 12.79 4.72 0.063
 Posterior airway space (BGo-Tt) 14.11 2.69 13.36 4.11 12.31 2.86 0.328
 Hyoid-third vertebra distance (H-C3) 76.29 7.62 79.24 6.62 76.57 6.39 0.442
 Hyoid-mandibular plane distance (MP (Me-Goc)/H) 18.95 4.37 15.97 4.97 18.74 5.53 0.201
  1. Values marked by distinct letters are significantly different from each other Tukey test (p < 0.05)