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Table 1 Means and standard deviations (SD) of the horizontal force component (Fx) for modified aligners (z11 = cut on tooth 11; z12–21 = cut from tooth 12 to 21) and uncut (none) aligners during palatal and vestibular tipping (± 0.151 mm deflection distance) for all three materials used

From: Removable thermoplastic appliances modified by incisal cuts show altered biomechanical properties during tipping of a maxillary central incisor

Tipping range Material thickness Material Cut N Mean (N) SD (N)
−0.151 mm palatal 1 mm Biolon® None 5 4.03 0.36
  Erkodur® None 5 2.56 0.57
  IdealClear® None 5 2.91 0.42
   Biolon® z11 5 3.0 0.40
   Erkodur® z11 5 1.94 0.48
   IdealClear® z11 5 2.28 0.20
   Biolon® z12–21 5 1.70 0.12
   Erkodur® z12–21 5 1.49 0.25
   IdealClear® z12–21 5 1.48 0.59
+0.151 mm vestibular 1 mm Biolon® None 5 5.41 0.74
  Erkodur® None 5 3.11 0.23
  IdealClear® None 5 3.05 0.80
   Biolon® z11 5 4.07 0.26
   Erkodur® z11 5 2.47 0.74
   IdealClear® z11 5 2.78 0.55
   Biolon® z12–21 5 2.09 0.40
   Erkodur® z12–21 5 1.75 0.33
   IdealClear® z12–21 5 1.72 0.89