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Table 2 ROBINS-I (risk of bias judgements in non-randomized studies of interventions)

From: The effect of pacifier sucking on orofacial structures: a systematic literature review

  Confounding Selection of participants Classification of interventions Deviations from intended interventions Missing data Measurement of outcomes Selection of reported results Overall
Adair et al., 1995 [12] Serious Serious Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Low Serious
de Sousa et al., 2014 [23] Serious Serious Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Low Serious
Dimberg et al., 2010 [24] Serious Low Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Serious
Duncan et al., 2008 [9] Serious Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Serious
Facciolli Hebling et al., 2008 [25] Serious Serious Moderate Serious Moderate Moderate Moderate Serious
Katz and Rosenblatt, 2005 [26] Moderate Serious Moderate Moderate Low Low Moderate Serious
Lagana et al., 2013 [27] Serious Serious Moderate Serious Moderate Moderate Moderate Serious
Lima et al., 2016 [15] Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Moderate
Melsen et al., 1979 [28] Serious Serious Moderate Serious Moderate Moderate Moderate Serious
Moimaz et al., 2014 [3] Moderate Moderate Low Low Low Low Low Moderate
Scavone et al., 2007 [29] Moderate Serious Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Serious
Schlomer, 1984 [30] Serious Serious Serious Serious Serious Serious Moderate Serious
Tibolla et al., 2012 [31] Serious Serious Serious Serious Serious Moderate Moderate Serious
Wagner and Heinrich-Weltzien, 2016 [16] Low Low Low Low Moderate Low Moderate Moderate
Warren and Bishara, 2002 [32] Low Low Low Low Moderate Low Low Moderate
Zimmer et al., 2011 [13] Moderate Moderate Low Moderate Moderate Low Low Moderate
Zimmer et al., 2016 [14] Serious Moderate Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Low Serious
  1. Low comparable to a well-performed randomized trial, Moderate sound for a non-randomized study, but not comparable to a rigorous randomized trial, Serious presence of important problems, Critical too problematic to provide any useful evidence on the effects of intervention, Overall risk of bias equal to the most severe level of bias found in any domain