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Table 3 Effects of different types of pacifiers on orofacial structures

From: The effect of pacifier sucking on orofacial structures: a systematic literature review

Study Age of examination in months Pacifier type 1 Pacifier type 2 Examined orofacial structures Results (%) Statistical significance (p value)
Pacifier type 1 Pacifier type 2
Adair et al., 1995 [12] 24–59 (43.9) Functional exerciser Conventional pacifier AOB 13.4 23.7 0.19
    PCB 15.9 13.2 0.79
    Overjet (≥4 mm) 23.2 13.2 0.23
    Class II primary canine relationship 26.8 5.3 0.01
    Class II primary molar relationship 15.9 2.6 0.04
Lima et al., 2016 [15] 24–36 (29.0 (±2.0 SD)) Orthodontic pacifier Conventional pacifier AOB 44.3 55.7 0.03
    PCB 37.5 62.5 0.72
    Overjet (> 2 mm) 42.9 57.1 0.11
    Class II primary molar relationship 28.6 71.4 0.78
    Flush of primary molar relationship 41.7 58.3 0.78
    Deep overbite 64.3 35.7 0.23
    Diastema 55.6 44.4 0.32
    Crowding 66.7 33.3 > 0.999
Wagner and Heinrich-Weltzien, 2016 [16] 16–24 months (20.3) Thin neck pacifier (TNP) Conventional or physiological AOB Overjet (≥2 mm) −1.2 2.7 −2.2 3.2 < 0.001 < 0.001
Zimmer et al., 2011 [13] 15.9 (± 3.9 SD) Dentistar NUK AOB 5 38 < 0.001
    Overjet (mm), mean ± SD 1.3 ± 1.0 1.7 ± 1.4 > 0.05
Zimmer et al., 2016 [14] 20–36 months Dentistar NUK AOB 6.7 50 0.00
    Increased overjet 31.1 19.0 0.23
    Class II primary canine and molar relationship 4.8 11.1 0.29
    Deep overbite 6.7 2.4 0.47
  1. AOB anterior open bite, PCB posterior crossbite