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Table 2 Descriptive statistics of the torque angle values of the PSC of the 50 incisors from [P1] to [P1 + 11] and at the inflection point. Descriptive statistics of the inflection point location on the PSC of the 50 studied incisors is also shown in this table. N stands for frequency of recorded site and SD for standard deviation

From: The inflection point: a torque reference for lingual bracket positioning on the palatal surface curvature of the maxillary central incisor

Site N Minimum Maximum Range Mean SD
[P1] 50 − 3.30 28.62 31.92 9.15 7.90
[P1 + 0.5] 50 − 7.62 19.25 26.87 4.95 6.32
[P1 + 1] 50 − 9.63 11.66 21.28 0.04 5.40
[P1 + 1.5] 50 − 18.38 3.42 21.80 − 6.10 5.38
[P1 + 2] 50 − 32.14 − 2.59 29.55 − 14.07 6.70
[P1 + 2.5] 50 − 44.96 − 7.59 37.37 − 24.44 9.40
[P1 + 3] 50 − 48.39 − 11.80 36.59 − 31.88 9.30
[P1 + 3.5] 50 − 60.77 − 16.91 43.86 − 36.34 8.79
[P1 + 4] 50 − 52.64 − 20.16 32.48 − 35.84 6.61
[P1 + 4.5] 50 − 45.96 − 18.24 27.73 − 33.31 6.22
[P1 + 5] 50 − 43.15 − 15.51 27.64 − 29.75 6.21
[P1 + 5.5] 50 − 50.27 − 9.85 40.42 − 26.04 7.47
[P1 + 6] 50 − 35.48 6.28 41.77 − 20.62 8.87
[P1 + 6.5] 50 − 31.96 7.64 39.60 − 14.00 9.84
[P1 + 7] 50 − 27.82 21.41 49.23 − 7.33 11.73
[P1 + 7.5] 50 − 20.81 40.84 61.65 0.10 13.77
[P1 + 8] 45 −14.02 48.09 62.11 9.18 15.83
[P1 + 8.5] 34 − 9.88 50.10 59.98 13.32 14.86
[P1 + 9] 25 − 5.31 46.92 52.24 16.69 12.74
[P1 + 9.5] 12 − 1.69 37.92 39.61 18.09 11.92
[P1 + 10] 4 4.91 34.30 29.39 20.77 12.07
[P1 + 10.5] 3 14.50 32.31 17.81 24.63 9.16
[P1 + 11] 1 32.92 32.92 0.00 32.92
Inflection point 50 − 70.84 − 22.71 48.13 − 45.82 9.98
Inflection point location [P1 + 2.03] [P1 + 6.17] 4.14 [P1 + 3.73] 0.94