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Table 3 Results of random effects meta-analyses performed from randomized trials comparing tooth-borne rapid maxillary expansion with either bone-borne or hybrid (tooth-bone-borne) rapid maxillary expansion

From: Are there benefits from using bone-borne maxillary expansion instead of tooth-borne maxillary expansion? A systematic review with meta-analysis

Experimental Timing Outcome Trials MD 95% CI P I2 (95% CI) τ2 (95% CI) 95% PrI
Bone-borne Pst-Exp Intermolar width (crown) 2 − 0.09 − 0.34, 0.16 0.46 0% (0%, 98%) 0 (0, 8.14) NC
Bone-borne Pst-Exp Inter-1st-premolar width (crown) 2 − 0.71 − 2.70, 1.27 0.48 91% (41%, 100%) 1.88 (0.12, 258.72) NC
Bone-borne Pst-Exp Inclination 1st molar (left) 2 − 2.93 − 7.87, 2.01 0.25 83% (0%, NC) 10.59 (0, NC) NC
Bone-borne Pst-Exp Inclination 1st molar (right) 2 − 1.47 − 3.90, 0.95 0.23 0% (0%, 98%) 0 (0, 189.07) NC
Bone-borne Pst-Exp Inclination 1st premolar (left) 2 − 2.49 − 5.19, 0.22 0.07 60% (0%, 100%) 2.31 (0, 483.98) NC
Bone-borne Pst-Exp Inclination 1st premolar (right) 2 − 4.05 − 5.97, − 2.13 < 0.001 0% (0%, 98%) 0 (0, 93.81) NC
Bone-borne Reten Intermolar width (crown) 3 0.15 − 0.27, 0.56 0.49 0% (0%, 88%) 0 (0, 1.23) − 2.54, 2.83
Bone-borne Reten Inter-1st-premolar width (crown) 3 − 0.66 − 1.90, 0.58 0.30 77% (0%, 99%) 0.88 (0, 22.64) − 15.06, 13.74
Bone-borne Reten Inclination 1st molar (left) 2 − 1.89 − 9.48, 5.70 0.63 87% (10%, NC) 26.04 (0.45, NC) NC
Bone-borne Reten Inclination 1st molar (right) 2 − 0.20 − 3.91, 3.51 0.92 59% (0%, 100%) 4.33 (0, 913.80) NC
Bone-borne Reten Inclination 1st premolar (left) 2 − 2.38 − 9.53, 4.76 0.51 90% (31%, NC) 23.94 (1.24, NC) NC
Bone-borne Reten Inclination 1st premolar (right) 2 − 0.77 − 3.02, 1.48 0.50 0% (0%, 98%) 0 (0, 154.35) NC
Bone-borne Reten Nasal cavity width 2 *0.41 *− 0.03, 0.84 0.07 0% (0%, 99%) 0 (0, 7.60) NC
Hybrid Reten Intercanine width (crown) 2 − 0.22 − 0.98, 0.55 0.58 36% (0%, 100%) 0.16 (0, 55.23) NC
Hybrid Reten Intermolar width (crown) 2 0.18 − 0.40, 0.76 0.55 0% (0%, 98%) 0 (0, 28.03) NC
Hybrid Reten Inter-1st-premolar width (crown) 2 − 1.96 − 6.18, 2.27 0.36 89% (27%, NC) 8.36 (0.38, NC) NC
Hybrid Reten Inclination 1st molar (left) 2 − 1.29 − 3.61, 1.03 0.28 0% (0%, 99%) 0 (0, 341.30) NC
Hybrid Reten Inclination 1st molar (right) 2 − 1.12 − 6.96, 4.72 0.71 66% (0%, NC) 11.75 (0, NC) NC
Hybrid Reten Inclination 1st premolar (left) 2 − 3.97 − 7.08, − 0.86 0.01 49% (0%, 100%) 2.70 (0, 685.54) NC
Hybrid Reten Inclination 1st premolar (right) 2 − 0.79 − 3.18, 1.60 0.52 0% (0%, 98%) 0 (0, 181.80) NC
  1. CI confidence interval, MD mean difference, NC non-calculable, PrI predictive interval, Pst-Exp post expansion, Reten post retention period (at least 3 months)
  2. *Pertains to standardized mean difference, as two similar outcomes were pooled together: nasal cavity width at orbita and nasal cavity width at the 1st premolar