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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: What effect does functional appliance treatment have on the temporomandibular joint? A systematic review with meta-analysis

Study Design; setting; country$ Patients (M/F); age* Intervention; duration# Follow-up Imaging method Outcome
Arat et al. [38] uNRS; Uni; TUR CI. II/1; ANB ≥ 4°; SN-ML 25-32°
EG, 9 (2/7); 11.2
CG, 9 (4/5); 9.7
Activator; 16.0 Pre-Tx
6.0 mos post-Tx (24.0 mos)
MRI Condyle-to-disc angle (ant/mid/post)
Joint space (anterior/posterior/medial)
Arici et al. [39] RCT; Uni; TUR CI. II/1; OJ > 5 mm; Mnd RTG
EG, 30 (13/17); NR
CG, 30 (9/21); NR
FNFS; 7.0 Pre-Tx
Post-Tx (7.0 mos)
CT COND volume
GF volume
Joint space volume (anterior/posterior)
Cevidanes et al. [40, 41] RCT; Uni; USA CI. II/1 ≥ ¾ unit; OJ > 4.5-10.0 mm
EG, 28 (NR); 10.3
CG, 25 (NR); 10.9
Fränkel-2; 18.0 Pre-Tx
Post-Tx (18.0 mos)
MRI PCA of skeletal morphology
Chavan et al. [42] uNRS; Uni; IND CI. II/1
EG1, 10 (6/4); 12.5
EG2, 10 (4/6); 11.5
CG, 10 (3/7); 12.0
EG1: Twin Block
EG2: Bionator
Pre-Tx
6.0 mos in Tx
MRI SAG disc concentricity
SAG disc position
Chintakanon and Chintakanon et al. [43, 44] pNRS; pract; THA CI. II/1; OJ > 5 mm; Mnd RTG
EG, 19 (14/5); 11.7
CG, 21 (13/8); 11.5
Twin Block; 6.0 Pre-Tx
6.0 mos in Tx
MRI Condylar axial angle
Coronal disc position
Eminence angle
SAG disc concentricity
SAG disc position
Croft et al. [45] rNRS; pract; USA ANB ≥4°; Cl. II ≥ ½ unit
EG, 40 (16/24); 8.5
CG, 40; NR (matched)
RME/Herbst/EGA; 11.0 Pre-Tx
Post-Tx (11.0 mos)
2.7 years post-Tx
CT Condylar growth
GF displacement
Joint space (anterior/posterior/superior)
Elfeky et al. [46] uNRS; Uni; EGY Cl. II ≥ ½ unit; Mnd RTG; V-pattern
EG, 22 (0/22); NR
CG, 18 (0/18); NR
Twin Block; 9.4 Pre-Tx
Post-Tx (9.4 mos)
CBCT COND position
COND size
GF position
Joint space (anterior/posterior/superior/medial)
Franco et al. and Franco [47, 48] RCT; Uni; BRA CI. II/1
EG, 28 (15/13); 10.3
CG, 28 (14/14); 10.9
Fränkel-2; 18.0 Pre-Tx
Post-Tx (18.0 mos)
MRI Disc position
Disc shape
  1. CG control group, COND condyle, EG experimental group, EGA eruption guidance appliance, FA functional appliance (unspecified), FNFS Forsus nitinol flat-spring, GF glenoid fossa, M male, RCT randomized clinical trial, Mnd RTG mandibular retrognathism, NR not reported, PCA principal component analysis, pNRS prospective non-randomized study, Pract practice, rNRS retrospective non-randomized study, SAG sagittal, Uni university, V vertical, mos months
  2. #Duration of active Class II treatment in months
  3. $Countries are given with their ISO-3 code
  4. *Age is given in years either as mean
  5. Historical