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Table 1 Perception of improvement in the QoL dimensions after orthodontic and surgical treatment

From: Perception of quality of life by children and adolescents with cleft lip/palate after orthodontic and surgical treatment: gender and age analysis

  Before
Mean (SD)
After
Mean (SD)
t p d-Cohen
Physical health
 Physical function 6.63 (4.01) 3.20 (2.44) 8.083 < .000 1.03
 Communication 3.85 (2.50) 2.03 (1.86) 6.850 < .000 .82
 Pain .61 (.85) .34 (.71) 2.519 .015 .34
Psychological health
 Self-concept 3.02 (2.60) 2.03 (2.08) 4.448 < .000 .42
 Behaviour 1.16 (1.31) .70 (.99) 3.746 < .000 .40
Social health
 Social function 1.13 (1.15) .60 (.90) 4.361 < .000 .51