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Table 4 Studies classified as per domains of applications of artificial intelligence in orthodontics

From: Applications of artificial intelligence and machine learning in orthodontics: a scoping review

The domain of application of artificial intelligence in orthodontics Number of studies Reference number
Diagnosis and treatment planning:
a. For orthodontic extractions 5 [18, 23, 25, 28, 68]
b. For TMJ Osteoarthritis 4 [22, 47, 66, 67]
c. To assess maxillary constriction and/or impacted canines 3 [51, 54, 71]
d. For screening of osteoporosis from panoramic radiographs 2 [34, 41]
e. Assessment for need for orthodontic treatment and/or prediction of treatment outcome 2 [42, 53]
f. Classification of skeletal patterns 2 [24, 44]
g. Prediction of orthodontic treatment outcome—class III M/O 2 [46, 62]
h. For orthognathic surgery and orthodontic extractions 1 [21]
i. To assess airflow dynamics, predict upper airway collapsible sites and obstructive sleep apnea 1 [40]]
j. To predict association between C. difficile infections in hospitalized patients with major surgeries 1 [52]
k. Genetic risk assessment for non-syndromic orofacial cleft 1 [48]
l. To predict occurrence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with Down’s syndrome 1 [72]
m. Evaluation of facial attractiveness 1 [45]
n. Trainers for clenching 1 [29]
o. Selection of orthodontic appliance- type of headgear 1 [63]
p. Quantification of sagittal skeletal discrepancy 1 [49]
q. For cases suitable for fixed mechanotherapy 1 [55]
r. Selection of patients suitable to be treated with removable orthodontic appliances 1 [56]
s. Class II division 1 malocclusion 1 [57]
t. Broad-based 1 [79]
Automated cephalometric landmarking and/or analysis and/or classification
a. Lateral cephalogram 12 [27, 32, 35, 37, 64, 65, 69, 70, 74, 75, 77, 78]
b. CBCT images 6 [31, 58,59,60,61, 76]
c. Frontal cephalogram 1 [19]
Assessment of growth and development
a. Cervical vertebra maturation 1 [18]
b. Broad-based 3 [30, 39, 73]
Evaluation of treatment outcome- orthognathic surgery on facial appearance/ attractiveness and/or age perception 2 [36, 38]
Miscellaneous
a. Tooth segmentation from CBCT images/model 2 [33, 43]
b. Detection of activation pattern of tongue musculature 1 [50]
c. Evaluation of temperature changes during curing for orthodontic bonding 1 [26]