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Table 1 Definitions of the included measurements in the study

From: The efficiency of mandibular mini-implants in reducing adverse effects of class II elastics in adolescent female patients: a single blinded, randomized controlled trial

Measurement Definition
MMP The three-dimensional (3D) angle between the palatal line and the mandibular plane; maxillary-mandibular plane angle.
MP/SN The 3D angle between the line S-N and the mandibular plane
Y axis angle The 3D angle between y-axis and Frankfurt horizontal plane
Facial height ratio The ratio of lower to total facial height
Lower facial height The distance between the anterior nasal spine (ANS) and the Menton (Me)
SNA The angle between the points S, N, and A
Effective maxillary length The linear distance between the Condylion and A points
SNB The angle between the points S, N, and B
effective mandibular length The linear distance between the Condylion and the Gnathion points
  The angle between three landmarks: A, N, and B
SN/occlusal plane The angle between the line passing from sella turcica to nasion and the occlusal plane
U1 AP position The horizontal distance between the incisal edges of the upper central incisors and the frontal plane, as viewed from the sagittal view.
U1 vertical position The linear distance from the midroot of the upper incisors to the FHP, as viewed from the sagittal view
U1 inclination The angle formed between the frontal plane and the upper right and left central incisor long axes, as viewed from sagittal view
U6 AP position The linear distance between the mesio-buccal cusp tip of UR6 and the vertical plane, as viewed from the sagittal view.
U6 vertical position The linear distance between the furcation area of the upper right first molar to the FHP, as viewed from the sagittal view.
L1 inclination The angle formed between the frontal plane and the lower incisors long axes, as viewed from the sagittal view
L1 AP position The horizontal distance between the incisal edges of the lower incisors and the frontal plane, as viewed from the sagittal view.
L1 to NB line The horizontal distance between the incisal edges of the lower incisors and the NB line, as viewed from the sagittal view
L1 vertical position The linear distance from the midroot of the lower incisors to the mandibular plane, as viewed from the sagittal view
L6 vertical position The linear distance from the furcation points of the lower right first molar to the mandibular plane, as viewed from the sagittal view
L6 AP position The linear distance between the mesio-buccal cusp tip of lower left first molar and the vertical plane, as viewed from the sagittal view.