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Table 2 Visual analog scale (VAS) score according to the treatment arms compared using Kruskal–Wallis test

From: A randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods on pain management during orthodontic debonding

Areas of oral cavity Groups/treatment arms
Median VAS score (minimum, maximum)
p value
Medication Finger pressure Stress relief Control
Upper right 5 (0,30) 5 (0,30) 10 (0,25) 10 (0,40) 0.029*
Upper front 10 (0, 40) 15 (0, 40) 15 (5, 50) 25 (5, 60) 0.001*
Upper left 5 (0, 30) 5 (0, 20) 10 (0, 20) 10 (0, 35) 0.018*
Upper total 6.67 (0, 30) 8.33 (0, 26.67) 10 (1.67, 30) 13.33 (1.67, 36.67) 0.001*
Lower right 5 (0, 40) 10 (0, 30) 10 (0, 20) 10 (0, 60) 0.014*
Lower front 20 (0, 30) 20 (5, 40) 20 (10, 50) 30 (10, 70) 0.00008*
Lower left 5 (0, 30) 5 (0, 35) 10 (0, 40) 10 (0, 30) 0.010*
Lower total 10 (0, 33.33) 13.33 (1.67, 30) 13.33 (3.33, 30) 16.67 (3.33, 43.33) 0.0001*
Total 8.33 (0.83, 26.67) 10 (0.83, 25) 13.33 (2.50, 30) 16.67 (3.33, 43.33) 0.0001*
  1. *p < 0.05 = Statistically significant