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Table 2 Means, standard deviations, and Tukey’s analysis of the surface microhardness and surface roughness of the studied groups (p < 0.0001)

From: Casein phosphopeptide amorphous calcium phosphate and universal adhesive resin as a complementary approach for management of white spot lesions: an in-vitro study

Group Surface microhardness (kg/mm2) Surface roughness (μm)
I (Sound enamel) 319.2a ± 3.16 1c ± 0.02
II (Artificially created WSLs) 177.8e ± 2.2 2.35a ± 0.21
III (ICON resin-treated WSLs) 248.3c ± 3.03 1.65b ± 0.16
IV (CPP-ACP-treated WSLs) 274.48b ± 3.54 1.83b ± 0.08
V (Universal adhesive resin-treated WSLs) 196.78d ± 5.35 1.73b ± 0.07
VI (CPP-ACP and universal adhesive resin-treated WSLs) 286.82b ± 4.57 1.56b ± 0.1
  1. Means with the same superscript letter in each column are not significantly different at p ≤ 0.05