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Table 3 Study characteristics: participants (sample size, demographic information), intervention (orthodontic treatment), observation, comparison (biological substance), dose and route of administration, outcome (rate of tooth movement), and study design

From: The effect of the local administration of biological substances on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review of human studies

Study Participants Intervention Observation/tool used for assessment Comparison Dose and route of administration: E Outcome (tooth movement)
Yamasaki et al. [27]
Prospective clinical trial (split mouth)
Phase 1: 9 patients; 8F, 1 M; (11.8 Y)
Phase 2: 8 patients; 6F, 2 M (15.6 Y)
E: 10; C: 10 (quadrants)
Phase 3: 8; 6F, 2 M (12.9 Y)
E: 10; C:10 (quadrants)
FPm extraction cases
Phase 1:Lingual arch + 2 double springs; 100 gm, constant force
Follow-up period: between 8 and 26 days
Phase 2: closing loop; 150 gm, constant force
Follow-up period: Between 10 days and 3 weeks.
Phase 3: Open coil springs; 150 gm, constant force
Anchorage (HG or HA)
Follow-up period: Between 1.5 and 4.8 months
Phase 1:
Buccal movement of FPm
Phase 2:
Canine retraction
Phase 3:
Canine retraction
Clinical measurement
PGE1 Phase 1: E: 10 μg; submucosal buccal right FPm
Frequency: inconsistent (3 to 5 injections)
Phase 2: E: 10 μg; submucosal distal to canine
Frequency: inconsistent (3 to 4 injections)
Phase 3: E: 10 μg; submucosal distal to canine
Frequency: inconsistent (5 to 13 injections)
mm/month
Phase 1: E/C ratio: 2.14 ± 0.33
Phase 3: E: 2.07 ± 0.26
C: 1.30 ± 0.16
Spielmann et al. [25]
Prospective clinical trial (split mouth)
5 Patients; 1 F, 4 M (16 Y) Elastic chain between FPm (transversely)
Force application: 4 weeks (weekly reactivation)
Follow-up period: month
Lingual movement of FPm
Photographs
PGE1 E: (10 μg); local administration; weekly, (for 4 weeks) mm/month
E: 3.10
C: 1.03
Patil et al. [40]
Prospective clinical trial (split mouth)
14 Patients; 10 F, 4 M (17.7 Y) FPm extraction cases, NiTi retraction springs; 150 g
Anchorage: TPA and 2nd molars
Follow-up period: 2 months
Canine retraction
Occlusogram
PGE1 E: (1 g); distal to canine; (days 1, 6, and 17) mm/2 months
E: 3.48 ± 0.69
C: 2.01 ± 0.49
Al-Hasani et al. [26]
RCT (split mouth)
15 Patients; (17–28 Y)
E1: 5; E2: 5; E3: 5 (quadrants)
C: 15 (quadrants)
FPm extraction orthodontic cases
150 g retraction force
Anchorage: TPA, stops, ligating SPm and FM
Follow-up period: 3 weeks
Canine retraction
Clinical measurements
Vitamin D (calcitriol) E1: 15 pg, E2: 25 pg, E3: 40 pg vit D; local administration; weekly (for 3 weeks) mm/3 weeks
E1: 1.29 ± 0.61
C1: 1.42 ± 0.63
E2: 1.57 ± 0.84
C2: 1.04 ± 0.33
E3: 1.15 ± 0.36
C3: 1.04 ± 0.3
McGorray et al. [28]
RCT
39 Patients; E: 16F, 4 M (26.2 Y)
C: 12F, 7 M (27.7 Y)
Aligner therapy: 4 maxillary aligners (2 weeks/aligners)
(0.5 mm anteroposterior movement)
Follow-up period: 2 months
Right or left central incisor (crown tipping)
Superimposition digital
Human relaxin hormone E: (50 μg/0.2 ml); 2 injections (facial and lingual); local infiltration; weekly, (for 8 weeks) mm/2 months
E: 0.83
C: 0.83
Ciur et al. [41]
Prospective clinical trial (split mouth)
6 Patients; 3F, 3 M (18 Y) FPm extraction cases
Closed coil NiTi spring; 150 g
Anchorage:TPA
Follow-up period: 3 weeks
Canine retraction
CBCT
Vitamin D3 (decostriol) E: (42 pg/1 ml) 0.2 mL vit D; local administration; weekly (for 3 weeks) mm/month
E: 1.7 ± 0.63
C: 1.00 ± 0.61
Tehranchi et al. [31]
RCT (split mouth)
8 Patients; 3F, 5 M
(17.37 Y).
30 extraction sockets
(E: 15, C: 15)
FPm extraction cases
Closed coil NiTi spring; 150 g
Follow-up period: 4 months
Canine retraction
Stone dental casts-digital caliper
LPRF E: LPRF immediate placement in extraction socket; (only once) mm/4 months
E: 6.65 ± 0.83
C: 6.76 ± 0.76
Nemtoi et el [30].
Prospective clinical trial (split mouth)
20 patients; 11F, 9 M
(16.43 Y)
40 extraction sockets
(E: 20, C: 20)
FPm extraction cases
Closed coil NiTi spring; 150 g
Follow-up period: 6 months
Canine retraction
Stone dental casts-ruler
PRF E: PRF plugs in extraction socket; (only once) mm/6 months
E:3.1
C:1.9
Yussif et al. [42]
RCT
12 Patients; 9 F, 3 M (16–34 Y)
E: 6 subjects; C:6 subjects
Unilateral palatal impacted max canine
Elastic chain traction (every 2 weeks)
Follow-up period: 1 month
Canine traction
Clinically on radiographs (panoramic and occlusal)
Vitamin C E: (200–300 mg); Intraepidermal injection;
1–1.5 mL of l-ascorbic acid divided by 6 to determine dose for 1 tooth: biweekly (for 6–8 continues orthodontic visits)
mm/month
E: 2.25 ± 0.274
C: 1.08 ± 0.376
Varughese et al. [43]
RCT, (split mouth)
15 Patients; (22.5 Y) FPm extraction cases
Closed coil NiTi spring; 150 g
Anchorage: bilateral 2nd molar banding/TPA
Follow-up period: 3 months
Canine retraction
Stone dental casts-digital caliper
Vitamin D (1,25 DHC) E: 50 pg per 0.2 mL; intraligamentary injection; distal to the canine; monthly (for 12 weeks) 1st month E: 1.568 ± 0.368
C: 1.0260 ± 0.1777
El-Timamy et al. [32]
RCT, (split mouth)
15 Patients; 15 F (18 ± 3 Y) FPm extraction cases
Closed coil NiTi spring; 150 g
Anchorage: mini-implants (TADs)
Follow-up period: 4 months
Canine retraction
Digital dental casts—superimposition
PRP E: 250 mg (0.25 mL) PRP +  10% CaCl2 solution; intraligamentary; every 3 weeks (at 0, 3, 6 weeks) mm/4 months
E:4.57 ± 1.13
C:4.53 ± 1.12
  1. E experimental, C controls, M males, F females, L load, Y years, W weeks, TPA trans-palatal arch, HG headgear, HA holding arch, PGE1 prostaglandin, LPRF leukocyte platelet-rich fibrin, PRF platelet-rich fibrin, PRP platelet-rich plasma, 1,25 DHC 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, FPm first premolar, SPm second premolar, FM force module, CBCT cone beam computed tomography
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